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X-ray Welding Machine

Do you ever find yourself worrying about how best to carry out your welding inspection? 

Ever thought of getting a welding X-ray machine locally, or importing welding X-ray machines from China?

We offer the most advanced and affordable welding X-ray machine, go straight to check them!

X-ray welding inspection

The main purpose of an X-ray inspection is to detect flaws or discontinuities in welds and correct them.  Weld inspection is the quality assurance aspect of welding. Without a proper inspection, there could be welding failure and other problems in the future. The size of the weld will also be inspected.  To summarize it all, we need x-ray inspection for welds to check whether the welds meet all the required specifications, codes, and standards.

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Services We Provide

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Installation Guideline

We offer you free and quick installation instruction with online video tutorials. The tutorial explains detailed and important steps to get your machine started. Any questions about installation, feel free to contact us!

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Customer Support

We work to provide the best customer support. We are here to help you solve any problems you may encounter. Feel free to contact us Uni X-ray team online via video chat, phone, or email anytime.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Quick Delivery

Online equipment shipped within 45 days and offline equipment within 20 days after payment confirmation. The customized machine is supposed to be deliveded in less than 90 days.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Warranty Service

Uni X-ray machine comes with a one-year warranty. In the warranty period, machine defects, repairs, and part changes are free. Unexpected damage issues due to shipment, handling, storage, abuse, or misuse will not be covered.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Installation Guideline

We offer you free and quick installation instruction with online video tutorials. The tutorial explains detailed and important steps to get your machine started. Any questions about installation, feel free to contact us!

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Customer Support

We work to provide the best customer support. We are here to help you solve any problems you may encounter. Feel free to contact us Uni X-ray team online via video chat, phone, or email anytime.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Quick Delivery

Online equipment shipped within 45 days and offline equipment within 20 days after payment confirmation. The customized machine is supposed to be deliveded in less than 90 days.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Warranty Service

Uni X-ray machine comes with a one-year warranty. In the warranty period, machine defects, repairs, and part changes are free. Unexpected damage issues due to shipment, handling, storage, abuse, or misuse will not be covered.

X-Ray Welding Machine: the Beginner's Guide

Table of Contents

Perhaps you’ve thought of getting a welding X-ray machine but don’t know how it works or how much it will cost.

You are not alone in this boat. Such is the plight of many manufacturers who constantly have to deal with unpleasant welding experiences like erroneous weld inspections. 

Admit it! The challenges that you face as a decision-maker in this industry can be daunting. However, the most critical decision you can make will be choosing the best inspection method that can effectively identify defects in your welding in a cost-effective way. X-ray weld inspection is one such effective method that has grown in popularity among manufacturers in the industry. 

This definitive guide aims to answer all your important questions about welding X-ray machines so that you can efficiently resolve your welding inspection difficulties.

1. What is X-ray Weld Inspection Equipment?

Welding is a method to connect two metallic materials during the industrial manufacturing process. X-Ray welding machines can be used to inspect the quality of welds quickly and effectively. It uses highly penetrating X-rays produced from an X-ray tube to pass through the welding products.

 

2. Why do we need an X-ray Welding Inspection?

 

X-ray Weld Inspection

X-ray Welding inspection

The main purpose of an X-ray inspection is to detect flaws or discontinuities in welds and correct them. Weld inspection is the quality assurance aspect of welding. Without a proper inspection, there could be welding failure and other problems in the future.

On one hand, the size of the weld can be inspected by a weld x-ray machine. It is necessary to check whether the welds meet all the required specifications, codes, and standards before going into production.

On the other hand, welds are prone to damage over time, due to overutilization and varying environmental conditions. For example, some inner defects of braided hose should be inspected for quality requirement and safety assurance. Hence, welding inspection should be carried out regularly to ensure their quality, tolerance, strength, safety, and reliability.

3. How does an X-ray Welding Machine Work?

 

x ray tube

How does an X-ray tube work?

A welding X-ray machine projects a beam of ionizing electromagnetic radiation on the welded component during welding inspections. The source of this emitted radiation is an X-ray tube. 

The main working principle is based on the beams passing through after the test sample has absorbed some radiation. 

Since the amount of radiation that penetrates the object is not the same as that which comes from the sample, you can then detect the variation on the screen. This variation will depend on the known thickness and the internal consistency of the material. An image comes up on the screen from the projection of the radiation on the object. The analysis of this image is then possible. Engaging the magnification capabilities of the X-ray machine can enhance the analysis. Again, the radiation source is crucial in generating a good image since a very thick object can absorb a lot of the radiation, and then projects a poor image on the screen. 

Such defects such as porosity, discontinuities, overlaps, and cracks can turn up from the image analysis, and a decision on the correction can be taken.

4. Which Industries can X-ray Welding Machines be Applied?

The application of X-ray welding machines in manufacturing is massive, with new technologies being developed around the use of X-rays to ensure quality.

  • Automotive Industry In the automotive industry, Automatic X-ray Inspection (AXI) is a critical part of assembly lines to ensure robotic welding is without any flaw. Welding X-ray machines can inspect the errors or defects of auto parts accurately. 

Automotive Industry

  • Electronic Industry – X-ray welding inspection has become essential in the electronic industry, such as LED PCBs. Circuit boards are becoming crammed with plenty of tiny elements, which has made inspection almost impossible. X-ray welding machines ensure that SMT and BGA connections are without flaws and meet design specifications. Electronic components of solar panels can be inspected by welding x-ray machine for safety requirement and mass production. 
  • Oil and Gas Industry – Pipeline construction, laying, and maintenance of the pipelines involve heavy welding, sometimes in remote locations and challenging positions. X-ray welding machines ensure that the welding inspection is accurate and easy to achieve.
  • The Aviation industry is another institution that relies heavily on welding to manufacture aircraft and planes. Aircraft manufacturers cannot afford the payment in damages if a plane crashes. Therefore, aviation manufacturing companies use X-ray welding machines to ensure that welding inspection is carried out thoroughly and accurately to avoid losing both lives and assets.
  • Military – Defense devices are welded to produce rigid and rugged gadgets. X-ray welding machines ensure that military-grade welding specification is possible. 

5. How Much does it Cost to Buy an X-ray Welding Machine?

Getting a machine like this is an investment considering that it helps your organization meet their objectives. Nonetheless, the cost of an X-ray welding machine can depend on purchasing a new or refurbished machine. 

Also, purchasing from a local or international manufacturer can affect the cost as additional freight costs can be significant. Still, European and American manufacturers cost significantly higher than their Chinese x-ray equipment suppliers.

The level of automation can also have substantial cost implications as advanced automation features lead to higher prices.

Considering all this information, the price of an X-ray welding machine can cost as low as $30,000 for a refurbished machine from a local manufacturer with little or no automation. 

On the other hand, a new machine supplied by an international European or American manufacturer with high automation can cost as high as $400,000.

6. What are Advantages and Benefits of X-ray Welding Machines?

A welding X-ray machine provides enormous benefits to both inspectors and manufacturers. It helps to speed up production without downtime and at a very reasonable cost, and it does not severely impact the bottom line of the business. 

Here are other important gains.

  • X-ray welding machines can uncover surface and subsurface defects that are difficult and almost impossible for other methods to discover. Other inspection methods such as visual or optical inspection are limited when identifying subsurface defects in PCB component assembly. 
  • It can also inspect inner structures like the internal welding conditions of pipes where other methods can be costly, time-wasting, and inaccurate. Braided hose can be inspected by the welding x-ray machine to ascertain the mechanical integrity, avoiding any failure that can lead to accidents. 
  • X-ray machines can detect subtle changes in the properties of a material or product that can affect its quality. Such changes can include corrosion, size, thickness, and material density, all of which add up to reduce the quality of the final product. 
  • It minimizes the risk of product recalls, which can significantly affect a company’s bottom line and, in extreme cases, lead to bankruptcy. It can be worse if the product has caused harm or fatality before recalling it. Such incidents can cause a series of endless litigation and bad publicity.

7. How do You Select a Suitable X-ray Welding Machine?

Selecting a suitable X-ray welding machine is never a walk in the park, considering that the omission of a critical factor can lead you astray. You don’t want to be stuck with a machine that might cost you a fortune yet does not meet your weld inspection requirements. 

Here are the most important considerations you should carefully look at and check off your list before purchasing an X-ray welding machine

  • Company Reputation – The consistent track record of success in delivering value to its customers or the lack of it is an excellent pointer to a company’s ability to deliver on its promise to you. 

So, if a supplier does not have a good track record that is dependable, then don’t make the mistake of purchasing an X-ray welding machine from them.

  • Power Capacity – This is the voltage required by the machine to deliver a quality image. The thickness of the product you intend to inspect will greatly determine the power capacity of the machine you should purchase. 
  • Image Quality – The extent of magnification of a machine without losing critical details of the image is essential for an accurate analysis of the 
  • Desired Features – Buying an X-ray welding machine that lacks the essential features you desire to carry out welding inspection accurately, swiftly, and easily can mean setting yourself up for failure.

Make sure to confirm that the essential you desire is present before purchasing such an important tool.

  • Application Support – This is a critical concern as lack of application support can be tough on your profit line. Trying to get clarification on a technical feature during usage without a satisfying response from your supplier can be frustrating. 

A supplier without reliable application support can cause significant downtime during your welding inspection.

 

8. How do you Maintain an X-ray Welding Machine?

One way to prevent a breakdown is to carry out routine and periodic maintenance on your X-ray welding machine.

The first step is to ensure that all parts, including moving parts, adjustable devices, and openings, are cleaned for dust and dirt. This effort will ensure that nothing clogs the easy movements of these parts and fans are working properly to cool the heated components.

Secondly, you need to confirm the working conditions of functional parts, including buttons, switches, and control knobs. Operational aspects like the display screen also need a functional check to ensure clarity, magnification, and other display functions.

Lastly, ensure that wiring, cables, and plugs of the machine are in good condition ensuring that there are no internal cable breakage and tear in the insulating covers of the wires. 

X-ray Welding Machine: FAQ Guide

For most technical equipment, including the X-ray welding machine, a vast majority of users often have questions that regularly appear in forums and authority websites like this. This list of frequently asked questions is not exhaustive but tops the whole bunch in the number of times they show up. 

X-ray welding inspection and Ultrasonic inspection are the two most popular forms of weld inspection. Both are non-destructive testing which means that samples can still be used as final products if they pass the weld test. This reason explains why they are both popular.

While X-ray inspection is a radiographic form of weld test that works by emitting radioactive beams on test samples that are then absorbed by these objects, the rate of absorption of these X-rays is determined by the thickness of the test samples and the type of flaws detected.

However, Ultrasonic weld inspection relies on the velocity of sound travelling back after hitting the test samples. This method can also detect internal, external, and awkwardly shaped objects for flaws like the X-ray inspection method.

X-ray welding is the latest advance in welding technology. Similar to electron beam welding and laser beam welding, a high-powered focused X-ray beam is used to produce thermal heat. It will initiate the melting of the metal to form the weld once it gets cooled. Hence, it is very fast and stable. It is also possible to increase the accuracy of the weld due to this high-powered focused X-ray beam.

Still, there is a limitation. In case the X-ray beam is not adequate to penetrate the metal, it will then form a molten metal pool on the surface.

To overcome this limitation, a keyhole is created in the metal joint for heat penetration. This is where X-ray welding inspection is done to assess the quality of welds whether they are strong or not. It can also detect flaws during weld manufacturing as well.

 

There are varied aspects in detecting of lithium batteries:

  • Checking the imperfection by measuring missing material, foreign material inclusions, and overhangs
  • The performance of the battery can be enhanced by correlating it with the microstructure and design.
  • Analysis of the failed battery cells through visual interpretation
  • Usually, lithium sheets are rolled together to create a battery. Using CT (computed tomography) based X-ray machine, it is possible to determine any nick as well as check its length, twist, and fitting.
  • Identify any sign of voids, holes, or the presence of any misalignment in the stacked parts.
  • Detect insulation layer, faulty assemblies, fuses, welds, broken cables, etc.
  • Measures the internal structure, linear distances, and alignments precisely
  • Check if the lithium battery is fully functional
  • Predicts if there is any chance of short circuit

 

Characteristics X-ray welding inspection Ultrasonic testing
Speed and cost Comparatively slower and expensive Comparatively faster and cheaper
Source X-rays emitted by an X-ray tube Sound waves emitted by laser at high frequency
Sample assessment All material types Only metals, plastics, ferrous as well as nonferrous substances
Principle When X-rays are penetrated through the test weld sample, its internal structure is displayed in the film. There will be differences in energy absorption depending on both thickness and density. Hence, the region of the sample where the energy is not absorbed due to defects will be found darker in the film (Figure 18). When ultrasonic energy is passed on the test sample, it diffuses with insignificant loss of energy. If there is any defect, these waves may reflect back to the point of origin that gets displayed on the monitor. By measuring the amplitude of the reflected pulse, UT can locate and examine the defects (Figure 19).
Geometry Suitable to assess complex welds Require special probes in varied geometries for weld assessment
Types of flaws detected Surface and subsurface flaws, but not fine defects Surface, subsurface, thicker section, deep finer planer or linear defects, lamination-like flaws, submerged-arc weld, control spot welding, and friction stir weld
Assessment Can automatically assess the position and type of flaws from both sides Can assess the accurate position, location, length, and type of the flaw as well as the thickness of the test sample from one side only
Result storage Permanent Temporary
Disadvantages

Poor resolution and wrong flaw size

Easier to interpret a 2-D image of the discontinuity compared to a 3-D image.

The film is so delicate to tolerate temperature, humidity, and pressure.

Need access to both sections of the test sample.

 

The surface must be available for the transmission of ultrasound waves.

You need a coupling medium to boost the diffusion of sound energy into the sample.

You need reference standards for equipment calibration and flaw characterization.

Tougher to evaluate cast iron and other coarse-grained metals because of an increase in noise signals with less sound transmission.

It is also difficult to assess thin, rough, non-homogenous, and irregularly designed tiny samples.

Need access to both ends or sections of the test sample.

Inspection of welded joints is a necessary activity to ascertain the quality of the welding job and to guarantee that it meets design specifications.

Quality assurance is fundamental in the manufacture of products. Since welding is used in the manufacture of most products, it follows that inspection of the welded portion of the product is critical to ensure that the product is quality.

Also, flaws like cracks, porosity, and spatters are common defects that accompany welding jobs and can significantly reduce the quality of the product. Only through quality inspection of these weld jobs can these defects be identified and corrected.



By visual inspection, a strong weld will have no sign of overheating but with adequate weld penetration into all openings. 

Also, the welds cover the welded points in uniform width without necessarily being straight. Furthermore, inclusion, gas pockets, and porosity are the most common defects in welding jobs in a strong weld.

However, assessment of the internal consistencies on the weld is also essential, and this can only be carried out using a non-destructive inspection like X-ray welding inspection.

An X-ray welding machine with a source for emitting radiation energy is used to detect weld faults using X-rays. This machine releases X-ray energy that penetrates the welded joints, including the internal parts of the welds.

An image forms on the screen after the X-ray energy penetrates the object, and the residual radiation passes on to the screen to form the image. 

The areas with the highest energy absorption appear white on the screen, while those with low absorption appear dark. Hence, a consistent welded joint will appear white while welding errors like porosity occur as dark spots.

X-ray equipment determines the size and of the presence of flaws in the given sample weld during its manufacture. The more the weld size, the more it can tolerate stress. 

Here is the list of varied weld defects:

1. Cold lap/ cold shuts/ lack of fusion – Here, the weld filler metal inappropriately merges with the base metal. 

► Causes: 

  • Poor welding technique
  • Presence of a very wide weld joint
  • Too low welding voltage
  • Very low travel speed
  • Attempt to make a large weld in a single pass

 

 

2. Porosity – Occurrence of dark round or irregular spots singularly, in rows, or in groups on a radiograph.  

► Causes:

  • Gas entrapment in the solidifying metal
  • Failure to clean the base metal
  • Failure to shield the weld from atmospheric contamination
  • Striking with a long arc

 

 

3. Cluster porosity – It is similar to the porosity issue. But the spots will group together very closely.

► Cause: Vaporized constituents are entrapped in the molten weld during solidification

 

 

4. Slag inclusions – Occurrence of dark, jagged asymmetrical shapes on a radiograph.

► Causes:

  • Entrapment of non-metallic solid material in weld metal or between base metal and weld
  • Use of an improper welding angle with low current
  • Letting the quick cooling of the weld pool
  • Use of an extreme high weld speed
  • Improper base metal cleaning before welding begins

 

 

5. Incomplete penetration/lack of penetration – It is one of the most offensive flaws where the weld does not penetrate the joint and leads to the appearance of cracks.

► Causes:

  • Use of improper welding techniques like arc misdirect
  • Failure of thick metal preheating
  • Insufficient current for weld penetration
  • Poorly designed joint

 

 

6. Incomplete fusion – Here, the weld filler inappropriately fuses with the base metal. 

► Causes:

  • Use of a wrong electrode angle
  • Following wrong welding process
  • Failure of slag removal on joint surfaces
  • Failure of oxide layer break up on base metals

 

 

7. Internal concavity or suck back – Here, the weld metal contracts as it cools and draws up into the weld’s root of the weld.

 

 

8. Internal or root undercut – Here, the base metal damage occurs next to the weld’s root.

 

 

9. External or crown undercut – Here, the base metal damage occurs next to the weld’s crown.

 

 

10. External undercut

► Causes

  • Failure to clean rust from the metal
  • Use of a damp electrode in small angle
  • Excess current use
  • Following poor welding techniques
  • Use of an incorrect filler

 

11. Offset or mismatch – It occurs on the surface due to the improper alignment of two pieces while welding together.

 

 

12. Inadequate weld reinforcement – Here, the weld metal’s thickness is less than base material’s thickness.

 

 

13. Excess weld reinforcement – Here, weld metal is added more in the weld area.

 

 

14. Cracks – It looks as jagged with very faint irregular lines.

► Causes:

  • Base metal contamination
  • Poor joint design
  • Use of hydrogen during ferrous metal welding
  • High welding speed and low current
  • Failure of metal preheating before welding begins
  • Shrinkage in solidification leading to a residual stress formation

 

 

15. Tungsten inclusion – Here, tungsten traps in the weld if welding is done improperly. It looks lighter with a distinct outline radiographically.

► Cause: Molten weld or filler in contact with tungsten electrode’s tip

 

 

16. Oxide inclusion – Oxides are seen on the surface of the material being welded. It appears dark and irregular radiographically.

 

 

17. Burn-Through – It occurs when surplus heat causes weld metal to enter the weld zone. These lumps of metal sag create a thick glob (icicles) on the backside of the weld. 

 

 

18. Whiskers – These are short weld electrode wires found within the weld or on its top or bottom surface.

Conclusion

To sum up, getting an X-ray welding machine can provide significant benefits for your welding inspection needs. However, the ability to identify your specific needs and acquiring the device that is suitable to handle your peculiar desires is more important. 

Getting this suitable X-ray machine will depend mainly on identifying the type of product you plan to inspect.

As highlighted in this guide, you won’t have to worry too much about your budget if you consider the most critical factors determining the welding X-ray machine price.

Lastly, ensuring that you take preventive maintenance of your machine is very important as this ensures that your device lasts for a very long time.

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