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X-ray Machine for Lithium Battery

Lithium battery technology is a new type of energy source, it continues to have more relevance in our day-to-day lives. In recent years, lithium battery explosion news is common, this is because the battery is wrapped in a thick layer of plastic or aluminum alloy, making it impossible to see the inside of the battery with the naked eye. X-ray makes it possible to see the internal structure of the lithium battery to ensure the safety of its production and quality inspection process.

LX-1Y60-140 is the UNI X-Ray online X-Ray equipment for lithium battery inspections. It is the leader of the cylindrical battery internal perspective inspection. Most of the industry’s 18650 cylindrical lithium battery manufacturers use this device to finish lithium battery perspective detection because it detects real-time imaging at a glance. 

The equipment processes the image by the related software which can automatically detect good and bad products according to the set standard, and sort out the bad products. The front end and the back end of the equipment can be connected with the production line to realize 100% on-line detection of cylinder batteries which effectively improve production efficiency.

The well-known lithium battery with excellent performance is widely used in electric vehicles, consumer electronics, household appliances, aviation, and other fields. Lithium batteries are used widely due to its good storage, easy transportation, ambient temperature, and humidity. Despite its popularity and widespread applications, we constantly hear about the spontaneous combustion and explosion of lithium batteries in various industries. If the lithium battery on a phone causes injury due to an explosion, one can imagine how the explosion of electric cars will endanger other people’s lives. The explosion of lithium batteries is caused mainly due to the internal defects during the manufacturing process.

To adapt to the continuous progress of the lithium battery industry, it is mandatory to improve the level of lithium battery production technology, product quality, and user safety. Here comes the industrial radiography-based lithium-ion battery testing X-ray equipment, to solve this purpose. This equipment can inspect the internal conditions of the lithium battery. The positive and negative electrodes are different. The transmittance of materials to X-rays is also different. Hence, X-ray tests have become an important means of battery detection.

 

How should the X-ray machine work during the production of lithium batteries?

There are several quality-based risks while winding the pole pieces, welding the ears, spot welding into the shell, and welding caps. Hence, after completing the lithium battery package, X-ray inspection is required to check whether the welding inside the battery is proper or not. If the rolls are aligned properly, the winding won’t undergo short-circuit which leads to an explosion. The internal image is visually displayed by the X-ray machine, and the defects are automatically predicted by its associated software. This equipment improves the efficiency of detection and the quality of the factory products.

UNI X-ray, the national high-tech X-ray equipment supplier, has developed its Li-ion battery X-Ray inspection system to solve the purpose. This X-ray machine emits X-rays through an X-RAY generator, which penetrates the battery’s internal structure. The imaging system receives the X-rays of the lithium battery and takes pictures. The associated software will automatically measure and predicts the quality of the battery, by analyzing the pictures.

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About Battery X-ray Inspection You Should Know

The electrochemical cell is the smallest working unit in a lithium battery. It consists of an anode and a cathode connected by an electrolyte. Though the electrolyte conducts ions, it is an insulator to electrons. When this battery is in a charged condition, the anode will have a huge level of intercalated lithium while the cathode will be exhausted from lithium. During the discharge time, lithium-ion leaves the anode side and migrates to the cathode side through the electrolyte. These associated electrons are collected by the collector which can be used to power an electric device.

 

A new market report by Roskill revealed that the demand for lithium-ion batteries is expected to rise more than ten-fold by 20‌29, reaching in excess of 1,8‌00GWh capacity. Similarly, the capacity of battery factories will exceed 2,0‌00GWh by 20‌29, at around 145 facilities globally. Due to the huge demand of the automotive and energy storage markets, the application of NCM/NCA type cathode materials may become dominant. However other cathode types will have their own market share in niche applications. Recently, the carmakers have begun to switch to high-Ni cathodes where the rising number of battery producers provides NCM721 and NCM811 cells for commercial purposes.

 

In 2019, nearly 60% of the Li-ion battery demand was reported by the automotive industry. Starting from 2020 till 2029, Roskill predicts the greater market share of lithium-titanate and silicon-carbon anodes.

The lithium-ion battery is widely used in thermal, hydro, wind, aerospace, solar systems, electric tools, military equipment, electric automotive such as bicycles, cars, etc. Let us go through the significance of lithium batteries in major sectors:

 

1.Electric bicycles

Usually, electric vehicles are driven by lead-acid batteries. The weight of a normal lead-acid battery is more than 10 kilograms. On the contrary, the lithium-ion battery weighs only around 3 kg. Hence, lead-acid batteries were replaced by a lithium-ion battery for its lightweight, safety, convenience, and cost-effectiveness.

 

2. Electric vehicles

Automobile pollution is a serious issue due to its exhaust gas emission and noise especially in medium and large-sized cities with a thick population and high traffic rate. Hence lithium-ion battery is used significantly in the electric vehicle industry since it is pollution-free.

 

3. Aerospace sector

The lithium-ion battery is used in aviation missions where it calibrates the flight, improves ground operations, supports the launch, enhances efficiency, and helps in night operations.

 

4. Other applications

The lithium-ion battery is widely used in all the accessible items like electronic watches, cameras, mobile phones, CD players, MP3, MP4, all types of remote control, gun drill, razor knife, and children’s toys. One can find its application in hospitals, supermarkets, hotels, telephone exchanges, as well as emergency power supplies.

 

As Li-Ion batteries are the best devices for energy storage, manufacturers, as well as suppliers, are working continuously to increase their load capacity and lifecycle, by strictly complying with the quality assurance and safety standards.

 

Hence, regular battery testing and failure analysis become mandatory to improve its design and validate the function of its internal features. This is where digital radiography as well as computed tomography (CT) X-ray inspection play a vital role in assessing the internal electrode setup after assembly for any defects. By understanding the anode-cathode layout, X-ray inspection can precisely detect the quality of electrical connections, internal linear alignments, short circuits, misaligned elements, and many more.

 

 

The battery life of the lithium-ion is an indispensable topic while discussing about new energy vehicles. Due to the decomposition of electrolyte and electrode materials, lithium-ion batteries undergo loss of capacity, increase of impedance, and the increased resistance in charge conduction. These conditions lead to the destruction of lithium battery structure.

 

The battery life of lithium battery is decided based on calendar life and cycle life. Even the improper operation can rapidly degrade the battery life within a short period causing unexpected accidents. The anode of the lithium battery is basically made up of a graphite material even if it is composed of a lithium iron phosphate or ternary lithium manganate, or any other positive materials. The graphite anode is unstable that it can fuse with the electrolyte, forming a solid fast ion conductor interface.

 

The SEI is one of the major structures that helps to maintain the stability of lithium-ion batteries. The gaps in SEI membranes allow the flow of lithium ions to move in and out. Hence, it has high electrical conductivity. This property is the most important aspect for lithium-ion batteries. The SEI is not considered static in both cycle life and calendar life. Usually, SEI grows in thickness and may get destroyed to a certain extent. Again, this damaged part will continue to form a new SEI film due to the repetitive contact between the electrolyte and graphite. Though lithium ions get consumed in formation and repair processes, high quality based SEI membranes is mandatory for the extended life cycle of the lithium-ion batteries.

 

When the lithium-ion battery becomes deformed due to the external factors such as temperature, humidity, field change, force, etc., a stress is developed between the parts. The holes in the SEI becomes deformed and the ion flow won’t remain free. These continuous micro-changes increase the resistance of the battery externally, decrease the capacity level, worsens the charging capacity, etc.

 

Lithium evolution and dendrite growth formation

Hence the evolution of lithium ions can be the major issue for the production of lithium batteries. Still, this issue is not yet solved, and the research is going on. The most common cause for this issue is the lack of space for the intercalation of lithium in the anode. Due to the extreme resistance of the lithium-ion migration, these ions cannot be embedded in the negative electrode. But it is possible to find the electrons upon the surface of this electrode forming a layer of silvery-white lithium, otherwise called dendrite growth.

 

Dendrite growth is one of the essential problems that can affect the stability and safety of the lithium-ion battery. It may even destroy the diaphragm and causes short circuit, leading to thermal runaway. Conversely, lithium is highly active and react drastically at low temperature. When the battery produces heat, it accumulates more heat, and the lithium-ion may react violently. This is also one of the major causes of heat runaway.

 

The major source of lithium-ion in the lithium battery is cathode. Lithium ions are accumulated in the lattice structure of the material. It gets embedded or withdrawn during charging and discharging. Normally, cathode works in two forms. In the first form, the total quantity of active material will be reduced due to the collapse of the lattice structure. In the second form, there occurs the consumption of the side reaction between cathode material and electrolyte. As the number of lithium ions gets removed constantly, the number of vacancies where they are stored will be reduced accordingly. If the cathode material is operated improperly or misused, a huge quantity of active material will be vanished within a short duration due to the fracture of large-scale crystal. The external characteristic of the battery will be the decrease in a capacity directly. The internal resistance of the cell rises when there are changes in the lattice structure. This resistance may block the ion flow in and out, or even extend the path of ion diffusion in the solid structure.

 

Hence the electrolyte and graphite must be protected by SEI film to reduce the adverse reactions. When the temperature increases, the cathode and electrolyte may produce several side effects. These reactions decrease conducting ions, consume electrolytes, and produce gases.

 

As the lithium ions move between positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte directly affects the rate of ion transfer along with the degree of hindrance to the velocity.

 

There are varied factors such as temperature, voltage, charge and discharge current that may influence the battery life on the micro-level.

 

Temperature

Since lithium battery has high electrochemical power, temperature plays a significant factor affecting the life of a lithium battery. Increase in temperature improves the activity of an electrochemical reaction and the battery performance, discharge capacity, and reduces the internal resistance. But this higher temperature can increase the side effects among the cathode, anode, and the electrolyte. This effect can speed up the electrolyte consumption, loss of cathode and lithium-ion, increase in internal resistance, and a loss of battery capacity.

 

On the contrary, at both high and low temperature, the level of side reaction will remain low, thereby reducing the chemical activity inside the battery. This condition will also reduce the single point capacity of the active material. The higher discharge of current damages the structure of cathode material, since the electrode material does not meet the requirements of the current load. Even dendrite growth and lithium evolution arise if the cathode is charged at high current and low temperature.

 

Voltage

Overvoltage charging is another major reason for weakening of lithium batteries. There is always a relation between cycle life of the battery and the charging cut-off voltage. It is very evident that the difference of 0.15V will have a greater effect on the life of battery.

 

Application of the voltage higher than the electrolyte resist the voltage window and quicken the electrolyte decomposition. Since the decomposition products are composed of combustible gases, it may even lead to the damage of electrolyte conductive capacity. In the case of a battery anode, overcharging can pack the lithium in its limited area, which may lead to the explosion. In the case of a cathode, more quantity of lithium is emitted from the anode’s lattice. This condition will affect stability and leads to its collapse. At the same time, excessive lithium ions cannot be embedded in the anode. Instead, these ions will remain accumulated on the surface of the electrode leading to the formation of dendrite growth.

 

Current

Excessive current production is classified into charging current and discharge current. Charging is the transfer of lithium ions from the positive lattice to the graphite layer. This charging current will be more in quantity which will rapidly separate the lattice and disturbs the stability of the structure. Even the diffusion rate cannot be maintained, and the lithium ions accumulate on the surface of the anode. The loss of lithium ions in this continuous charging and discharging will be reflected in all the maintenance parameters such as the reduction in the capacity level and the increase in resistance level. The damage of this electrode structure leads to the loss of capacity.

 

During high battery discharge, a greater number of lithium ions pass through the SEI membrane for a shorter duration. This condition can damage the membrane structure in a large scale which leads to the drop of old film. Here comes the requirement of a large-scale repair process that will consume more lithium ions. These ions migrate to the cathode side and get squeezed into the lattice in a lesser duration, Hence, it won’t be possible to maintain the diffusion rate causing channel obstruction and damaging the lattice structure. The thermal effect of this large discharge current further extends its impact. It may not be possible to keep up the heat dissipation ability due to elevated temperature of the battery. This condition decomposes the electrolyte and melts the membrane one by one.

 

Hence the effect of current on the battery life depends on its ability to dissipate heat and not due to the impact of lithium ions on the inner microstructure.

 

There are many more factors that will affect the battery condition. But the above-listed factors play a significant role in the application of new energy vehicles, such as BMS, TMS, or three electric systems.

 

 

Lithium-ion batteries may fail in every stage of its life cycle due to manufacturing faults, bad usage, or degradation.

 

Causes of failure during the manufacturing stage:

  • Mechanical deformation
  • Inclusion of water or air
  • Damage of layers or the separator
  • Welding defects
  • Defects in liquid or gas tightness
  • Particle contamination
  • Divergent filling level

 

Causes of failure due to bad usage:

  • Mechanical – internal short-circuit due to the presence of dendrites or particles
  • Electrical – overcharging may lead to increase in temperature, gas formation, and adverse reactions
  • Thermal – Exposure to flame

 

Causes of failure due to degradation:

  • Lithium plating
  • Reformation of solid electrolyte interface
  • Contamination or migration of reaction products
  • Gassing
  • Corrosion

non-destructive testing at regular intervals in every stage can successfully prevent those above-listed damages.

 

 

There are three key characteristics that influence the inspection of lithium battery cells.

 

1 Pack type

Cell or pouch is the most common type of battery design that can affect the charging rates, power density, and space constraints of the electric vehicle design.

 

Roll type can reduce the high quantity of X-ray energy due to its increased density and protective casing. Pouch cell types are perfect for X-ray inspection due to the lack of any casing. An X-ray test can check the internal part of the battery to ensure perfect stacking uniformity and alignment. Both these types can be mechanically inspected for peel and bend forces. In pouch type, it is possible to inspect every layer of the material. Proper alignment of the varied layers within the battery ensures safety and optimal performance.

 

2 Weld type

There are varied types of weld technologies such as ultrasonic, resistance, laser, tab, etc. that focus on the heat and pressure placed upon the cap. It is recommended to avoid piercing the cell during the manufacture step as it may affect the electrochemical properties due to excessive heat exposure.

 

3) Connection type

 

Connection type

Tab Weld

Wirebond

Ribbon

Joining process

Spot/capacitive welding

Ultrasonic

Ultrasonic/laser

Advantages

Structural rigidity

High speed with good flexibility

Manage higher currents

Disadvantages

Inflexible connection

Sensitive to surface contamination

Reduced flexibility in connection

 

Each connection type listed above has its own characteristics with regards to total strength, time of completion, and response to vibration/corrosion.

 

The more compliant weld can form unique patterns. For example, wire bond type can form “S” shape while bus bar welds remain stiff and not flexible.

 

 

Before understanding the importance of an X-ray test in battery inspection, you first need to know how X-ray inspection works.

All X-ray inspection devices are composed of three basic features:

  • X-ray tube to generate X-ray photons
  • Operation platform to move the given sample in varied directions so that it can be inspected from all angles and magnitudes.
  • A detector located on the other side of the sample to catch and collect X-ray photons and convert them into an image.

X-ray imaging test works with the help of X-ray photons, which are passed through the target material kept on the operation platform. The resultant rays will be collected on the other side through a detector, which results in an image formation. Based on the differential absorption principle, the X-ray photons pass through the target object in a differential manner depending on its physical properties, such as density, atomic weight, and thickness.

Usually, heavier objects absorb more X-rays, so that they can develop into an image, whereas lighter objects are more transparent. Since different objects have unique characteristics, different amounts of X-ray photons are collected on the other end of the target object, to form a final image.

 

 

Due to the rising demand for lithium-ion batteries in all the sectors that we come across; it is mandatory that these batteries should strictly adhere to the safety regulations. Any internal failure of these lithium-ion batteries releases a lot of energy within a short duration which can turn out to be life-threatening. There are many aspects that may go wrong during the manufacturing step. Even a short circuit can lead to the explosion of the battery.

 

Lithium battery demands high quality, safety, product consistency, and follow-up maintenance cost with better assurance. To ensure the safety of a lithium-ion battery, varied safety testing standards have been put forward by the organizations worldwide:

  • Mechanical test to check extrusion, fall, acupuncture, impact, vibration, drop, etc.
  • Electrical test to check forced discharge, external short circuit, overcharge, over-discharge, etc.
  • Environment test for high-altitude low-pressure simulation via salt spray test
  • Thermal test for combustion, high-low temperature cycle, microwave heating, etc.

 

A professional battery testing machine can perform the above listed tests to ensure the safety of the fully completed lithium battery. Additionally, testing equipment is introduced in the lithium battery production phase to improve the quality effectively.

 

By performing non-destructive testing (NDT) during the manufacturing process in real-time, it is possible to inspect the complex interior structure within the electrical assembly of each lithium-ion battery. If there is any defect, the manufacturers can fix them in advance, optimize the operation, ensure the absolute safety, and prevent further failures.

 

The structure of a lithium battery consists of a shell, upper cover, clapboard, plate, pole, bus bar, bridge protection plate, terminal, etc. This is where X-ray real-time imaging technology is the right choice. The X-rays emitted by the X-ray generator penetrate the inner part of the lithium battery. The resultant image is photographed and automatically processed to measure the quality and quantity of the internal defects via software. At the same time, the front and back end of the instrument are connected with the production line. This entire connection can reduce the manpower cost by automatically loading and unloading the materials.

 

The more the utility of lithium batteries, the more will be the consequences of failure. Hence, it is advised to follow strict quality control standards to ensure safety.

 

As already mentioned above, even a tiny imperfection may turn out to be life-threatening. Hence a high-resolution inspection is recommended for the conventional verification of any complete battery cells. Such high-level online imaging can be achieved by the combination of microfocus X-ray imaging with quick and advanced sharp contrast digital imaging devices. Especially high-performance battery cells as well as energy conversion devices may turn out to be critical in the case of any defect, as it may have severe consequences on safety and performance.

 

 

There are varied aspects in detecting of lithium batteries:

  • Checking the imperfection by measuring missing material, foreign material inclusions, and overhangs
  • The performance of the battery can be enhanced by correlating it with the microstructure and design.
  • Analysis of the failed battery cells through visual interpretation
  • Usually, lithium sheets are rolled together to create a battery. Using CT (computed tomography) based X-ray machine, it is possible to determine any nick as well as check its length, twist, and fitting.
  • Identify any sign of voids, holes, or the presence of any misalignment in the stacked parts.
  • Detect insulation layer, faulty assemblies, fuses, welds, broken cables, etc.
  • Measures the internal structure, linear distances, and alignments precisely
  • Check if the lithium battery is fully functional
  • Predicts if there is any chance of short circuit

 

Measurement method

Detection of failures

Light optical system

Damage of separator

NIR spectroscopy

Presence of water drop

IR thermography

Presence of foreign particles

High-precision weighing

Leakage or filling level check

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

Check the fracture of welded parts Check the effect of lithium plating

Cycle test

State-of-health condition or state-of-charge

X-ray computer tomography

Presence of internal short-circuit

Neutron radiography

Check gas evolution

X-ray inspection systems for battery are divided into two categories. The inspection systems may be 2D or 3D, which may be operated either online or offline. Let us go through them in detail:

  • 2D X-ray inspection system:

It shows the two-dimensional images from both sides of the battery at the same time, thereby delivering a clear picture of the board’s components. This mechanism is similar to the traditional medical X-ray, which was used to view the bone fractures. These 2D systems can be operated either online or offline.

  • 3D X-ray inspection system:

It creates the three-dimensional image of a battery by forming a series of 2D cross-sections. This mechanism is similar to the CT scan used in the medical industry. This system also works using the laminography method, where it combines the cross-sections and eliminates the images from other sections to build up a specific area precisely. The CT method of the 3D system can only work offline due to its complex algorithms. But the laminography method can be used both online and offline.

  • Online X-ray inspection system:

Several X-ray devices are used online for data collection and comparison. Most of these devices are put after the reflow oven. Hence, it will be easier to process enormous quantities of complex battery, based on the additional cost and safety elements. However, the online operations will slow down the efficiency of the X-ray machine, thereby consuming more time and expenses. It is the slowest part of the assembly line, where the ability of the fabrication line becomes low.

  • Offline X-ray inspection system:

All types of X-ray devices can be operated offline to achieve panel inspection and sampling inspection. This operation type is comparatively quick to run. It is possible to inspect the battery conveniently at any stage in the assembly line. Hence, it is less cost-effective with higher productivity.

Selecting the perfect system for your operation must be done carefully. Opting for a 2D or 3D system with online or offline abilities usually depends on the measure of the target product inspected, the expected quality of the inspection, as well as the quantity of time required to complete the inspection process.

The X-ray inspection system with CT function is usually operated offline due to the requirement of more 2D images and complicated algorithms. Hence, this CT X-ray inspection system is used only in the less significant professional research areas. Other 2D and 3D systems were instructed with the best image at the least time in order to cut the cost of the inspection.

The following are the parameters considered for the X-ray tube:

  • Voltage in KV
  • Tube current and tube power
  • Target current and target power
  • Relationship between tube power and target power
  • Target current measurement
  • Focus port size
  • Spatial resolution
  • Focal size VS geometric shading
  • Feature resolution
  • Detail detectability of the system

One should pay attention to the following specifications while selecting a fluorescent tube for the X-ray machine:

  1. X-ray tube type:

Opt for the open tube or closed tube type, which is correlated with the resolution and life expectancy of the inspection devices. The more the resolution, the more will be the view of intricate and delicate details. If you inspect the target at a large scale, then it’s not an issue to choose the device with a relatively low resolution. 

  1. Target type:

The target type plays a vital role in influencing the distance between the sample and the X-ray tube focus. This type will eventually influence the magnifying level of inspection devices. Hence, the target type should be reflective or penetrating.

  1. X-ray voltage and power.

The penetrating ability of the X-ray tube is always proportional to the voltage. Hence when the voltage is large, it is easier to inspect the objects with higher density and thickness. If the inspected target is single-sided boards, select the devices with low voltage. Similarly, if the inspected target is multi-layer boards, select the high voltage. At a certain voltage level, the image definition is proportional to the X-ray tube power.

 

  • Parameters of X-ray tube such as spatial resolution, target current, detail detectability, and focus port size
  • Detector
  • Geometric magnification

 

The major purpose of the X-ray inspection system is to detect the defects by localizing and magnifying objects. The greater the geometric magnification, the greater will be the ability to inspect the minute defects in a target object. For example, a 5µm defect with a geometric magnification of less than 1000X is not visible in the X-ray image. Geometric magnification is also called as optical magnification.

 

To understand the geometric shadows intuitively, follow the below steps:

  • Place a finger in front of the projector
  • View the shadow of that finger on the wall
  • At the same time, you view an imaginary shadow next to a shadow. That’s called the geometric shadow.
  • The finger image magnification is defined as the distance from the wall to the projector divided by the distance from the finger to the projector.

 

Calculation of the geometric magnification of a system:

Maximum geometrical magnification of the system = (maximum distance of the detector + maximum distance of the ray tube) / Minimum object distance (the nearest distance of the ray tube to the object i.e. FOD) (0.25mm for FEINFOCUS)

 

The minimum FOD will be the target heat sink thickness.

 

  • The greater the focal size of the X-ray machine, the greater will be the geometric shadow of the object followed by the blurredness of the image.

 

  • The smaller the focus, the smaller will be the geometric shadow of the object followed by the sharpness of the image.

 

The maintenance tips are categorized day-wise, monthly, bi-annually, and annually. Let us go through each of them in detail:

 

1 Daily check items

1.1. Check whether the safety induction switch found at the back door of the X-ray machine is working properly.

Method: Close both front and back doors to see whether the contact indicator of the relay is ignited. If the contact indicator light on the relays KA2(front door) and KA3(back door) is on, the safety induction switch is effective. If the indicator light is not on, the safety induction switch is considered as unacceptable.

 

1.2. Check whether the X-ray machine rotation axis and four-axis movement are working properly.

Method: Once when the total power is turned on, click on the software, and shake the joystick on the comfort to see whether the motion of X-axis and Y-axis is normal. Click both up and down buttons of the X-ray tube and the image detector on the software interface to check if the two axes are moving properly.

 

1.3. Verify if the motion axis of the X-ray machine sensors is working appropriately.

Method: This test is done to control the movement of each axis to the position of the equivalent limit sensor. When the indicator light of the sensor is switched on, the movement will halt. Check whether the computer is booting properly.

 

2 Monthly check items

2.1. Inspection of the X-ray machine movement mechanism

  • Check whether the movement of each axis is normal and pay attention to the exact method of daily inspection items.
  • Check whether the movement of each axis is smooth.
  • Check whether the moving parts of the screw nut along with the work platform above the screw are not loose
  • Check whether the X-axis and Y-axis of the screw is smooth. If there is any rust formation, apply grease in each of the screws. Check the movement after this lubrication.

 

2.2. Inspection of the emergency stop switch working condition

  • Press the emergency stop button manually to check if the X-ray machine is down.

 

3 Biannual check items

3.1. X-ray machine power detection

Method: First, open the back door. Check whether 24VDC and 5VDC power supplies are working properly.

 

3.2. Equipment guide rail on the lubricating oil for its clean appearance

Method: First, turn off the device as well as disconnect the power supply. Open the back door, lubricate each screw rod with grease, and run it over and over to lubricate while cleaning the portions of the inner wall. In the end, open the side door and wipe it with a clean cloth.

 

4 Annual maintenance

4.1. Check for the signs of damage on the inner side and the outer side of the machine, if any.

 

4.2. Check the observation window glass to find if there is any scratch.

 

4.3. Check the rotation pattern of the X-ray light tube, platform movement axis, as well as the detector.

 

4.4. Check all the fans and clean the filter properly with cotton.

 

5 Check X-ray image quality

 Description of the problem

Analysis of the problem

Solutions

The computer has a starting problem                                     

· Loose computer power connectors

· Presence of virus can cause a system failure                

· Reinsert your computer’s power plug

· Reinstall the entire system

Automatic reboot after power-up

Presence of the virus in the computer

Perform system restoration

X/Y/Z axis motors are not running properly     

· Issues with the power               

supply to the drive

· Loose B joints

· Drive anomalies

· Replace the power supply

· Use fasteners

· Use replacement Drive

 

Jarring of the rail

during the movement

· Loose couplings

· Linear guide and roller screw without any lubrication for a longer duration due to dryness

 

· Check couplings and tighten them.

· Lubricate the linear guides and roller screws using grease

 

Alarmed UPS

Inadequate power supply

Change the power supply

 

The following parameters should be taken into consideration while choosing the right battery X-ray machine.

  1. Image Quality

If you are planning to buy a good camera, obviously the one with a higher pixel rate, say 24MP (megapixel), is better than the one with say 15MP, right? If this is the case for photography, choosing the best qualitative X-ray machine can be even more complicated. A lot of physics along with clever software is involved. The factors that can affect image quality in the battery X-ray machine may include voltage, power, spot size, the field of view, the proximity of the X-ray source to the target object, as well as the detector resolution. Consider voltage as an example; a higher voltage (say 130kV) system will have greater X-ray penetration ability, compared to the lower voltage one (say 90kV). The higher voltage can unfavorably affect the image contrast and henceforth the ‘quality’. In that case, how can you determine the quality? The best practical solution is to pick several typical sample assemblies and create the X-ray system. Determining the quality of an image can be a subjective opinion. The good news is that you can very well find the systems targeted at battery assemblies that can deliver image quality ranging from very good to excellent. Perhaps, this is connected more with the inspection set up rather than the technical competence of its components.

  1. How many ‘D’s?

The letter ‘D’ stands for dimensions. There are three kinds of dimensions:

  • 2D (two-dimensional) to provide a straight top-down view
  • 2.5D (2.5-dimensional) to allow top-down as well as angled or tilted views
  • 3D (three-dimensional) assembly re-construction using techniques like laminography or computed tomography (CT)

Remember the more details you view, the slower the examination is. That is why complex CT scans take hours to complete.

If you would like to check any missing solder balls or shorts between them, then 2D can be fine. Nevertheless, tilting will help in getting a better view if there are any components concealing the target area of interest. Hence, 3D will be used for an extensive detailed qualitative study of the target object.

  1. Ease of use

Several X-ray systems allow a grade of automated inspection, like pass/fail’ criteria through programming sequences of inspections. This strategy helps to operate easily with repetitive inspection, thereby allowing an ‘in line’ process if needed. Hence you need relevant skills to set it up and perform ad-hoc inspections. Nowadays in the recent X-ray machines, it is easier to interpret the final images easily with the help of varied colors. Though modern X-ray systems are easy to use, the inspector, at times, need to understand the application of all the settings like voltage and contrast settings. Not only that, but the inspector should also be able to interpret the findings which require the knowledge of battery production.

  1. Maintenance

Remember that the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) must be notified in advance before using an X-ray machine. There will be obligations for creating instructions, procedures for use, and involving radiation protection supervisors with advisors. The machine suppliers should provide timely advice, and perform an annual qualitative check on the system.

It is a well-known fact that there are varied types of the X-ray tube. ‘Open tube’ types are comparatively quick, inexpensive, and easy to replace. Perhaps, you need to spend a few pounds and a couple of hours. But the tube should be replaced every 200-300 hours or so of use. In the case of ‘Closed tube’ types, they can last for many years. But they are relatively more expensive, where you will spend thousands of pounds. Hence the selection of the best one depends on how much you will be using the system.

Select the X-ray detectors with standard or High Definition flat panels. The flow of X-rays leads to the degradation of detectors over time, say around 20% after ten years. Hence, it is recommended to replace every 8 to 12 years when the machine is in use.

Never forget to check for the common system failure modes, since the similar component parts can be assembled in varied ways. Remember to replace power supplies, cables, or connectors in time.

We have the right combination of the technical knowledge with qualified service expertise to provide proper maintenance service on our every X-ray system. If you have any query about our products or services, you can immediately contact us via online chat, phone, or email, so that our professional team will solve them at once.

 

  1. Professional Service Team

Uni-Xray has a team of well-experienced engineers to provide timely services for every customer, including consulting services, custom design, equipment qualification, safety inspection service, and so on.

 

  1. Training & Maintenance Services

Uni X-ray offers an exceptional range of after-sales services, such as online video instructions and installation guides for our customers to ensure that their new or existing equipment is in safe and good operating mode, with a long life cycle. Additionally, we provide prompt safety inspection with regular maintenance service as per the personalized needs of our customers. These services are also available for X-ray machines delivered by other suppliers.

 

  1. Customized Services

Once when you share the application details to our team, we will recommend the best X-ray inspection solution for you. At times, a customized solution will be the best, where we’ll work with you to suggest the right X-ray machine that will meet all your requirements. Hence, you can contact our sales and support team to discuss our services at any time as per your convenience.

 

 

  • Pre-installationservices including free installation instructions with the online video tutorials
  • Warranty services
  • Online support via call or chat at your own convenience
  • User training
  • Creation of customer profiles including personal details, product purchase date, product receipt date, and customer feedback. This service provides a timely one-stop service to solve all the customer’s worries.

 

Hope you have found this detailed blog post more informative that helps you to understand all the focus areas in detail before investing in industrial X-ray inspection equipment.

 

Does your equipment emit excessive radiation? What methods do you use to ensure radiation safety?

For the Safety Radiation, the Chinese and international standards are both <1uSn / h. but the Radiation from our equipment is much smaller than this standard.  

Our radiation control methods are:

  1. Sheet metal factory test;
  2. Radiation Test before debugging;
  3. Radiation Test after debugging.

 

What is the warranty period for your equipment? After the warranty period, how do you guarantee?

The equipment warranties period is one year. During the warranty period, repairs and possible parts and component changes are free.

What does your warranty cover?

The warranty covers defects in machines. It does not cover damages issues caused by damage due to handling, shipment, storage, accident, impact, abuse, or misuse.

We have bought your equipment. How can we get started? What kind of training do you offer?

 We offer three training methods:

  1. The customer (or agent) sends their engineers to our company for on-site training.
  2. If our staff goes to the customer’s site for training, the customer will pay for the hotel and air ticket fee and also a training fee.
  3. Video remote training: The machines are equipped with instruction manuals, and machine operation training is done using videos. After the training, a certificate of completion of training is

The operating software is in Chinese and English (switchable) with a human-computer interaction screen, easy to use.

What is the delivery time for your equipment?

  1. Off-line equipment are shipped out within 20 days after payment confirmation.
  2. Online standard equipment will be issued within 45 days after receiving the payment.
  3. Non-standard customized order within 90 days after we receive payment, depending on the customization.

 

This can be done according to the needs of customers. ocean freight costs are cheap and long, while air freights are expensive but take a shorter time.

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