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PCB X-ray Machine

Automated Optical Inspection(AOI) can externally check the quality of PCB(Printed Circuit Board) products. However, what if you want to check their interior solder connections? What if you want to check the inner structure of the board? A PCB X-Ray machine comes to the rescue.

Come and check our best quality and best price guaranteed X-Ray machine for PCB inspection!

PCB Inspection X-ray Machine for Sale

PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is the indispensable part used in the manufacturing of electronic products. Hence, you should rely on high-precision machinery and testing equipment to complete the excellent control of PCBA. For the accurate and high-performance testing, you need equipment such as AOI inspector, component cutting foot machine, wave soldering, X-ray machine, ICT test fixture, FCT test fixture, aging test stand, etc..    

 

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We have over 18 years of experience that specializes in X-ray Technology.

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Our X-ray machine is one of the safest choices you can make because it ensures maximum safety.

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Services We Provide

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Installation Guideline

We offer you free and quick installation instruction with online video tutorials. The tutorial explains detailed and important steps to get your machine started. Any questions about installation, feel free to contact us!

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Customer Support

We work to provide the best customer support. We are here to help you solve any problems you may encounter. Feel free to contact us Uni X-ray team online via video chat, phone, or email anytime.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Quick Delivery

Online equipment shipped within 45 days and offline equipment within 20 days after payment confirmation. The customized machine is supposed to be deliveded in less than 90 days.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Warranty Service

Uni X-ray machine comes with a one-year warranty. In the warranty period, machine defects, repairs, and part changes are free. Unexpected damage issues due to shipment, handling, storage, abuse, or misuse will not be covered.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Installation Guideline

We offer you free and quick installation instruction with online video tutorials. The tutorial explains detailed and important steps to get your machine started. Any questions about installation, feel free to contact us!

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Customer Support

We work to provide the best customer support. We are here to help you solve any problems you may encounter. Feel free to contact us Uni X-ray team online via video chat, phone, or email anytime.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Quick Delivery

Online equipment shipped within 45 days and offline equipment within 20 days after payment confirmation. The customized machine is supposed to be deliveded in less than 90 days.

Created by potrace 1.16, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2019

Warranty Service

Uni X-ray machine comes with a one-year warranty. In the warranty period, machine defects, repairs, and part changes are free. Unexpected damage issues due to shipment, handling, storage, abuse, or misuse will not be covered.

X-Ray Machine for PCB Inspection: the Beginner's Guide

Table of Contents

1. What is X-ray Inspection PCB?

PCB X-ray inspection, also referred to as automated PCB x-ray inspection, is a process that can detect any traces of defects on a PCB weld. It is an essential part of any electronics manufacturing process.

2. Why is X-Ray Inspection so Important in PCB Assembly?

If you are in the electronics sector, you must be aware of the preference for PCBAs (printed circuit board assemblies). Compared to the larger lead packages, these PCB assemblies are smaller and denser with more layers to save space. They have cost and functionality advantages as well.
For example, surface mount technology (SMT) develops higher-density PCBs with more modules hidden between layers. This decreasing size, increasing density, and high complexity of PCB placements have made it impossible for AOI to inspect the flaws thoroughly due to challenges such as tightly packed chips and casting shadows. Furthermore, thermal and ultrasonic methods can determine only one layer of chips without assessing the quality of hidden solder connections.
This is where PCB X-ray inspection, otherwise called AXI (Automated X-ray inspection), can penetrate the multiple layers of complex PCBs to examine inner portions, solder joints, and packaging parts without causing any damage to the products.
AXI improves the production of PCBs during the manufacturing stage by spotting soldering flaws or cracks. These defects will harm the PCB production followed by its delay which may cause loss of potential business opportunities. For this reason, X-ray inspection technology is so important in PCB assembly which is getting more popular.

3. What are Different Types X-Ray Inspection Systems for PCB?

There are different ways of classifying PCB x-ray inspection devices.

  1. The first method is based on the mode of operations. Here we have offline X-ray inspection systems and online X-ray inspection systems.
  • Offline X-ray devices can be used anywhere and can be integrated into any stage of production. They also allow for the inspection of the PCBs at any given time without dealing with too many constraints.
  • Online X-ray inspection systems are more suitable for the mass inspection of the PCBs and when you intend to do few type changes on the board.

The main issue with online x-ray inspection systems is they tend to slow down the assembly process. Also, they are not cost-effective as the offline X-ray systems. This explains why most PCB manufacturers still prefer offline X-ray systems.

  1. Another method of classification is based on the output images. Here we have 2D X-ray machines and 3D X-ray machines. Even though both two systems are capable of inspection, there are some variations in their output.
  • As the name suggests, 2D X-ray inspection systems are capable of displaying 2D images of a PCB simultaneously. They display both sides of an object. On the other hand, 3D X-rays generate 3 –dimensions of an object. They do a cross-section image of a sample by rebuilding many 2D images.

Regardless of the type, the X-ray inspection system that you use, the whole process must be supervised. This is vital as it will help to cut down the cost of doing the PCB inspection.

 

4. How does PCB X-ray Inspection Machine Work?

The working principle of X-ray inspection is based on the ability of the materials to absorb the X-ray radiation. The absorption of the rays varies from one material to another depending on the density, thickness, weight, and atomic numbers. Usually, dense materials tend to absorb more X-rays than less dense materials. This means that it is easy to generate images from dense materials.

On the other hand, light or less dense materials tend to be more transparent to X-ray radiation. The image below gives an accurate illustration of how the inspection works. The dark sections represent the dense or heaviest parts of an object. Materials in this section are dense. The transparent sections represent the light sections of the object.
The beams from an X-ray machine penetrate through the object to give different output. The inspection will be able to uncover defects, holes, openings and sections that are not properly aligned with others.

Therefore, three key components are heavily involved in the working of the X-ray inspection:

  • X-ray Tube: The X-ray tube is used for generating the x-rays. These are the beams that will determine the output of the imaging process.
  • Sample Platform: The function of this platform is to allow the operator to view or inspect an object from different angles. The platform is designed to move along with the sample.
  • Detector: The function of the detector is to catch or receive X-rays. It then converts the transmitted beams into a human-readable form.

5. What are the Applications of PCB X-Ray Machines?

You must be wondering about the exclusive benefits of X-ray machines during the PCB manufacturing process, right? Here is the list few defects:

  • Soldering defects – Using a PCB X-ray machine, manufacturers can determine the quality of soldering as well as its flaws such as open circuits, poor soldering, solder shorts, solder bridges, cold soldering, excess solder, solder voids, inadequate soldering, etc.
  • Component defects – Using a PCB X-ray machine, manufacturers can determine component defects such as faulty components, missing components, lifted leads, misplaced components, etc.
  • CSP and BGA defects – Since CSP and BGA components are complex, it becomes difficult to determine the flaws. This is where PCB X-ray machines can determine defects such as soldering bumps, BGA connections, as well as open circuit connections.

The above list of defects can be determined successfully by the PCB manufacturers using X-ray technology in order to ensure the quality of the manufactured PCB products.

6. How Much does a PCB X-Ray Inspection Machine Cost?

The PCB X-ray inspection machine price varies as per the requirements.

  • Pay attention to various parameters such as power, voltage, spot size, detector resolution, and the distance between the X-ray source to the sample object.
  • The degree of automation plays a key role if you are handling many samples.
  • Opting for the higher voltage helps in inspecting samples with higher density and thickness. For example, multi-layered PCBs require high voltage for inspection.
  • Generators with more specifications can be expensive although their inspection quality is high.
  • Flat panel detector or Image intensifier? – Flat panel detector is comparatively more expensive which delivers a brighter high-definition (HD) image.
  • Closed type or Open type? – Closed type is comparatively less expensive and long-lasting.
  • Offline or Online type? – Offline type is comparatively less expensive. You can quickly examine more PCBs at once.
  • 3D or 2D? – Looking for an accurate inspection from both sides of a sample? Opt for 3D, although it is comparatively costlier.

As a result, you get the customized version for what you pay.

7. What are the Benefits of PCB X-Ray Inspection Machine?

The X-ray system allows you to examine what you can’t see visually. Like how smartphones see through walls, the PCB X-ray system can do the following:

  • Allow to see various parts on a board – While inspecting PCBs through X-ray technology, the metal portion will appear dark. But other materials like plastic, ceramics, and glass will look transparent. Thus, the X-ray system helps you to see through varied components on PCBs and identify potential issues if any.
  • Enable to see through BGAs – Ball Grid Array is a surface mount packaging type used in making integrated circuits. It is used predominantly to save space and increase efficiency. However, its package involves more ‘hidden’ connections. Hence, an X-ray system is used to examine the quality of these connections and identify defects like shorts and open circuit connections.
  • Inspect the quality of solder connections – Solders are created to make connections without complicating the overall layout of the PCB. Usually, it is difficult to inspect the quality of solder joints due to their location. This is where X-rays look through the PCB to inspect the solder connection quality and identify voids, bridges, shorts, open circuits, and excess/insufficient solder paste.
  • Identify multiple potential problems – During PCB X-ray inspection, you can find any multiple potential issues such as missing components, lifted lead, or misalignments of the given PCB quickly and precisely.

Thus, automated X-ray inspection has a vital role in the electronics sector where it optimizes the production stage to produce high quality reliable PCBs, thereby saving the manufacturer’s credibility.

8. How to Choose a PCB X-Ray Machine for PCB Manufacturing?

There are a lot of X-ray machines out there with various features. So, you should be ready with a ‘must have’ list before choosing the appropriate PCB X-ray machine. Here is the list to consider:

  • X-ray power and input voltage –The higher the power supplied, the more the penetration ability. However, make sure to maintain the power settings in the midrange only (neither too high nor too low). Similarly, the more the voltage, the thicker the sample density and size.
  • X-ray tube – The choice of the right X-ray tube depends on how frequently you are going to use the machine. For a long duration, opt for the ‘closed tube’ although it is expensive. For short duration use (say 200-300 hours), select the ‘open tube’ type with less replacement cost.
  • Filtered connector – To avoid increased exposure of X-rays on a PCB sample, the filtered connector is used to control the radiation exposure and rectify the whiteout picture.
  • Ease of use – Degree of automation with programmed inspections offering ‘pass/fail’ criteria makes the entire operation very easy. However, the inspector should understand its settings (color, contrast, voltage, etc.) and have good PCB assembly knowledge to interpret the findings.
  • Maintenance cost – It depends on the degree of automation, the use of X-ray tubes, 2D/3D type selection, offline/online inspection, and the use of detectors. However, maintenance/replacement costs include cables, power supplies, connectors, and system failure modes every 8-12 years.

Make sure to consider the above-listed key factors before selecting the customized X-ray machine.

FAQs on X-Ray Machine for Battery Inspection

To make sure that PCBs are performing well as expected, manufacturers should assess whether they are assembled properly. This assessment can be conducted with an array of techniques from simple manual inspections to automated inspection machines.

For simpler units, manual inspections are enough. When it comes to complex multi-layered PCBs, you will require an automated inspection machine. The automated equipment can also speed up the inspection procedure especially while dealing with multiple PCBs.

You can inspect PCBs using the following three methods:

  • Manual visual inspection
  • Automated optical inspection (AOI)
  • Automatic laser test (ALT) measurement
  • Automated X-ray inspection (AXI)

PCB is the base for all electronic devices. Hence, it should be handled properly to avoid any damage. If it malfunctions, the electronic devices may fail either partially or completely.

Let us see how to check if PCB is working well or not:

  • Switch the power on and test the PCB. Say, for example, the motherboard is a PCB. Once when you switch on, if the light does not come on or if it makes any sound, make sure there is something wrong.
  • Check the PCB by removing any power source or electronic components. Clip the wires with cutters and pull those wires away from the board.
  • Check the connections. Use an oscilloscope or voltmeter to assess the voltage across every connection. In case PCB doesn’t conduct the right voltage, it is considered bad.
  • Check for misplaced solder, burn marks or scratches.

If you find any of the above issues in your PCB, repair it right away or get it replaced.

The following parameters such as exposure time, type of radiation, radiation flux (power and distance), and fabrication technology of the electronic part can determine the potential effect of X-rays.

X-ray manufacturers consider the above-listed parameters while developing a PCB inspection system so that the electronic parts to be inspected can remain safe from radiation.

The electronic damage occurs only if the X-rays are passed in the mega-volt range where the power will be 1000 times more. Hence for inspecting electronic components, the X-ray system uses only between 80-160 kV.

Radiation flux can be minimized by moving the sample far from the source. The exposure time can also be reduced with automation by implementing AI (artificial intelligence). All it takes is the shield design that can also protect other electronic parts not under inspection.

A damaged PCB can be repaired at times. In particular, internal traces can be repaired by trace removal, jumper addition, drill out, and component addition. At times, a part can also be replaced with a new one depending on the severity of the damage. For example, a burnt PCB cannot be repaired, and it should be replaced with a new PCB.

However, you require the support of experienced technical personnel. Only he can advise whether the damaged PCB can be repaired or replaced after conducting a detailed assessment. Most of the repair works cannot be done on site. The technical team can repair them in their workshops where all testing devices are available. Even after repair, check repeatedly to ensure its performance.

It is quite common that a PCB circuit may fail quality control tests. Hence, PCB troubleshooting is the only way to recover them.

Follow the list of troubleshooting steps:

  1. Perform a visual inspection of the PCB to detect any crack, dry solder joint, or burnt component. Just a good quality magnifying glass works initially.
  2. Check the power supply. Make sure the integrated circuit receives the appropriate power supply. Else, it may cause overheating on the PCB.
  3. Measure the voltage at varied PCB parts to find out the part with inappropriate voltages using a multimeter. Low voltage reveals the leakage in the circuit.
  4. Compare a defective board with a good circuit board by inspecting the reference points of both defective and good circuit boards with the help of a multimeter.
  5. Test each discrete component including the resistor, capacitor, diode, LED, etc. with the help of a multimeter.

Thus, PCB troubleshooting requires more focus and attention to detail. However, the selection of PCB troubleshooting depends on your experience and the PCB complexity level.

To increase the precision of the given target PCB sample, you should consider the following major factors:

  • X-ray power – The applied power is directly proportional to the penetration ability of the X-rays. More the penetration, more the precision.
  • X-ray voltage – Use low X-ray voltage to inspect thin as well as single-sided PCBs. High voltage can inspect large PCBs with thicker densities.
  • Target type – There are two types of sample materials: reflective and penetrative. Penetrative type sample offers more precision than reflective type. The type of this target sample can determine the tube focus and magnification of the X-ray inspection.
  • X-ray tube type – There are two types of X-ray tubes: Open and closed type. Opt for the high-resolution X-ray tube for getting a more precise and better-quality image.

Hence, start using the X-ray system to inspect your PCBs more accurately.

Conclusion

Finally, it is evident that the PCB X-ray inspection technology is a revolutionary breakthrough. By determining the flaws at an early stage during the manufacturing step, PCB X-ray inspection can save the manufacturer’s credibility. Not only that, but it also assures the quality of every PCB manufactured part.

Have you decided to buy the PCB X-ray inspection equipment? Are you looking out for the best supplier who can offer the customized qualitative X-ray machine for PCB inspection at an affordable cost?

Contact UNI X-ray company right away to get the best quality that you deserve!

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