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In the current automotive industry, x-ray non-destructive testing (NDT) has contributed greatly to the improvement of efficiency and quality in the production of automotive parts, especially for various types of castings, wheels, and tyres. The manufacturer of key safety components must guarantee the quality of their products. X-ray images shed light on many of the defects and their causes.
Using the automatic digital x-ray non-destructive testing system, 100% on-line inspection can be realized, thus achieving zero defect rate. X-ray non-destructive testing instrument has strong penetration and can quickly detect internal defects. High-resolution flat-panel detects images in real-time; the detections are intuitive, fast, and produce clear images at a low cost.
Due to the rapid development of the automotive industry, people expect more in terms of reliability, stability, and appearance of cars in long-term operation. Mostly, all the materials used in automobiles are composed of metals such as cast steel, cast aluminum, etc. The quality of these castings directly affects the safety and service life of the cars.
To make a car with high safety and service life, many auto parts manufacturers are required to test every workpiece used in the car. These components include the car’s engine, the car’s pistons, piston rings, connecting rods, brake braking system, steering wheel, car wheels, shock absorber rods, and other parts. These workpieces should have no defects, cracks, and bubbles. Hence, it is mandatory to inspect all these workpieces.
Here comes the industrial radiography-based X-ray machine to solve this purpose.
Industrial X-ray machine can quickly and automatically analyze and display defects. High-resolution X-ray machine is also used in sensor technology, electronics, materials science, and other natural sciences. Due to high detection, efficiency, intuitive and reliable results, X-ray nondestructive testing has become the preferred method to detect the defects of auto parts.
UNI X-ray, the national high-tech X-ray machine supplier, has developed its real-time X-ray imaging inspection equipment to inspect a wide range of automotive parts. Our automotive X-ray machine is noted for its high resolution, high definition image quality, equipped with automatic defect identification, and automatic judgment function. The entire X-ray automotive system can meet the production beat of most enterprises. With the pace of technological advancement, X-ray inspection technology is also being continuously improved to provide safer and more efficient non-destructive inspection equipment for varied industries.
We have over 18 years of experience that specializes in X-ray Technology.
Uni X-ray produces X-ray machines that offer excellent and ultra-sharp image qualities.
Our X-ray machine is one of the safest choices you can make because it ensures maximum safety.
Uni X-ray produces machines that have an easy mode of operation.
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If you are a topnotch lean manufacturer of piston rods, ignition coils, transmission gears, engine valve heads, or any other crucial automotive elements, or just a small CNC shop, unseen defects can appear within your auto parts.
For instance, Tom Rohr, owner of Advanced Engine writes:
“… the least common result of valve stem failure is the valve itself, you must always make sure you can identify the root cause of a fracture prior to replacing the engine valve(s).”
A research study by McKinsey & Company revealed that the number of automobile recalls has escalated massively over the last 20 years.
As the potential hazards are not viewed through the naked eye, countless dollars are at a huge risk of loss either by abandoning the production run or allowing the defective manufactured goods to enter the market.
If the cause of this recall is due to the defective production of automotive parts, the obligation, recall, and reclamation costs will far outweigh the time involved in validating the quality of your OEM automotive parts.
With the advancement of society and the swift development of the automobile industry, people have huge requirements for the consistency, strength, and appearance of the long-term automobile operation. Among the components used in automobiles, most of them are metal based including cast steel, cast aluminum, etc. The pros and cons of these castings precisely affect the safety and service life of your automobile.
To manufacture a car with utmost safety, you require many automotive parts such as engine, pistons, piston rings, steering wheel, brake braking system, connecting rods, shock absorber rods, car wheels, etc. All of them should be inspected for the presence of defects. If there is any crack or bubble, it will directly affect the safety of the car. Hence, a thorough inspection of all these automotive parts is mandatory, where the non-destructive testing via X-ray can solve the purpose.
X-ray based nondestructive testing follows the principle of differential absorption in which there will be a difference in the degree of absorption of X-rays by the components of varied thicknesses. Using this real-time industrial X-ray imaging technique, the interior portion of the tires, parts, and welds are revealed. Hence, it’s possible to detect the pores, cracks, slagging as well as looseness within these automotive precisely. The quality of the tire or other parts is evaluated as per the size, location, and nature of the observed defects. Hence, you can prevent major accidents caused by poor processing of tires or the internal defects of automotive parts.
The quality of the car can be assessed in four stages during the entire production process.
Our automotive X-ray machine can generate precise metrology data during pre-production by validating the conformity of the component with original designs to confirm its quality. In order to satisfy PPAP requirements, we find highly precise dimensional data for auto parts with complicated internal and external geometries, thereby validating the function of multi-material assemblies.
We deliver offline inspection solutions during the production phase that can confirm the quality of automotive parts before they reach their final destination. This step is perfect for high-value component applications as well as performance racing. The inspection with automotive X-ray machine during the production phase can be conducted at random or specific intervals to recognize the defects, confirm dimensions, as well as validate production steps. This phase can also inspect profile complex surfaces and detect out of tolerance features in production parts.
For warranty, quarantined, or recalled automotive parts, our high-speed X-ray based NDT inspection services can reduce uncertainty by providing a traceable and repetitive inspection. We provide confidence to our manufacturers to go ahead with their projects, isolate suspect parts, and reintroduce valid parts back into the production phase. the offline X-ray machine is considered as another option for part sorting and inspection in lower volume.
The automotive X-ray machine is a vital tool for failure analysis of automotive components and assemblies. As a non-contact nondestructive testing method, X-ray inspection reveals internal failures without damaging the component and preserving its natural condition. Our automotive X-ray machine not only saves your expenses but accelerate the complete inspection process by instantly delivering qualitative data for failure analysis.
The common castings that can be radiologically inspected include cylinder head, cylinder block, wheel supports, steering gear housing, etc. Mostly, these X-ray systems check for looseness, porosity, as well as missing parts. The instrument designed to inspect the casting comprises a computerized defect recognition system to visually inspect the castings with both manual and fully automated loading of the workpiece integrated into the production process. It also includes equipment with robotic arms as well as inspection equipment for the entire pallets of castings. That’s how specialized non-destructive inspection systems with X-ray technology meet the ever-increasing demands for quality assurance. It also delivers precise results without destroying the properties of the test object. This same effect is applicable to car parts made of plastic.
Our varied NDT imaging systems can examine the auto parts made from varied materials such as highly strong steel alloys, aluminum, plastics, composites, and multi-material assemblies. We can adapt components with complicated, irregular shapes as large as 44.5” in diameter by 63” in height, including airbags, fuel injectors, hydroformed metal tubes, cylinder heads, engine blocks, castings, brazed or welded fittings, lighting, air filters, electrical components, seat components, as well as part sub-assemblies.
The wheel is a vital part of the car, like how the leg is to the person. The car will produce longitudinal and lateral loads while driving. It’s the wheel hub that bears the entire load of the car as well as cargo. As and when the speed of the car increases, more will be requirements for the dynamic stability and dependability of the wheel. Hence, the quality of the wheel plays a vital role.
However, the current market is segregated into aluminum alloy wheels and steel wheels as per the material. Both these types dominate the market of automotive wheels due to its less weight, high precision as well as less inertia resistance. Hence, both of them are beneficial in reducing the rolling resistance of tires as well as improving the driving performance.
Aluminum alloy wheels are specially molded by a casting method. Due to the complex procedure of casting, the control over the raw material is not strict. There will be an improper process plan including mold structure design and production operation. All these issues cause wheel casting defects such as bubbles/pores, inclusions, loose, etc.
A proper wheel of high quality should follow a rigorous production process in addition to strict quality inspection. If the wheel is not up to the mark in terms of quality, there will be varied issues regarding utility, which may lead to traffic safety accidents.
X-ray based non-destructive testing technology produces varied grayscale display images through objects of diverse densities and thicknesses to assess the quality of the interior parts of the object. But this technology does not destroy the properties of the test object while assessing its quality. This X-ray technology can visually display the interior quality defects of the inspected wheel hub. Hence, this is an important step to understand and assure the supervision level of the wheel hub safety and quality.
X-ray based non-destructive testing can detect wheels defects such as:
All these testing results are well documented and archived. They provide prompt direct input for enhancing the quality of the casting process. Few customized solutions are available, according to the defect pattern and application involved.
There are chances of typical casting defects in all casting techniques that include materials such as iron, magnesium, aluminum, or zinc.
X-ray based non-destructive testing can detect automotive casting defects such as:
Other testing includes geometric measurement of interior structures as well as analysis of wall thickness.
Yes, it is possible to inspect multiple parts simultaneously to reduce the overall cost of the work. But it depends on the customer’s objective as well as the resolution level to visualize the results effectively.
No. The X-ray based nondestructive testing method does not leave residual radiation on the test object, since X-ray is an electromagnetic wave. X-rays are emitted in the form of energy, and not matter. That’s why like an ordinary light bulb when there is electricity shut down, the electromagnetic wave of X-rays disappears without leaving any residue on the part.
The common defects in the castings include especially holes and inclusions. So, let us understand the differences between loose holes, slag, shrinkage holes, pinholes, and trachoma in the defect.
There are two categories of defects:
Deficiencies such as slag and trachoma come under the inclusions category.
Deficiencies such as loosening, shrinkage, and pinhole come under hole-type defects (i.e., no inclusions in this defect).
slag porosity phenomenon may take place due to the slag or sand containing gas material formation.
The quality of the castings typically includes internal quality, external quality, and service quality.
Varied inspection methods including X-ray, γ-ray, eddy current and ultrasound can check and determine the internal quality of the castings. With the help of the ray detection effect, it’s possible to predict the size, shape, type, and distribution of internal defects in the castings.
The quality of the wheel usually depends on the method of its manufacturing and prompt inspection.
Wheels are manufactured in two forms:
The lower version of automotive models or trucks uses steel wheels, while most of the family cars are integrated with aluminum alloy wheels.
According to the range of expenses, there are varied methods of wheel manufacturing like gravity casting, low-pressure casting, as well as forged wheels. The cost of forging is anyway costlier than the ordinary casting, which suits for the high-end modification market. Since the low-pressure casting has high durability and a higher yield rate, it is suitable for mass production. Hence, many car manufacturers prefer this method of manufacturing.
Depending on the manufacturing method, it’s possible to estimate the quality and rate of the wheel. Irrespective of the manufacturing method, an inspection of the manufactured wheels is mandatory to ensure its quality. This is where the X-ray based NDT method plays a significant role.
There are numerous factors that affect the value of castings, like meager control of raw materials, unreasonable structure design, unreasonable procedure plan, improper production operation, etc. All these factors may produce a variety of defects in castings, such as bubbles/pores, inclusions, cracks, and loose.
X-ray based nondestructive testing is the most preferred method to detect internal defects in castings so that it can improve production efficiency and avoid material wastage. Cracks in the castings can be viewed as light-colored lines in the final X-ray inspection image. Similarly, inclusions are viewed as a dark block, and loose as a light-colored nebulous (hazy) form.
Highly qualitative fluoroscopic images can be emitted using a non-destructive X-ray inspection device that converts the signals received by a flat-panel detector. The entire functioning can be carried out with the help of a mouse. This system is quite easy to use. Standard high-performance X-ray tubes can inspect defects below 5 microns, and the system can magnify up to 1000 times, by tilting the object in any direction. The associated software can automatically or manually detect the test object and generate a detection data report.
The features of industrial flaw detector include:
Our UNC160 industrial flaw detector (otherwise called X-ray flaw detector) is driven by an X-ray tube in order to see through the structure of the test object. X-ray equipment is radiation safe. All the parts of the machine fulfill the European and American safe radiation standards: i.e., < 1usv/h. At the same time, UNC160 has got a safety interlock function that can prevent inappropriate operation of personnel. It passes the General Administration of Quality Supervision as well as Inspection and Quarantine security certification. The entire high-voltage electrical components are strictly safeguarded.
Brake disc sand hole typically refers to the surface and interior part of the brake disc. Either, there will be sand particles, commonly called a ‘sand hole’. Else there will be gas, hole, or impurity formation. They are referred to as grit.
This appearance of grit on the brake disc surface can be viewed or identified directly through our naked eye. But if it appears on the interior part, the object should be processed before getting exposed, or it can be detected with the help of X-ray based nondestructive testing equipment. Obviously, X-ray based non-destructive testing equipment is the best choice.
X-ray based non-destructive testing equipment follows the principle of X-ray transmission by taking real-time photographs of the interior parts to detect the inner structure of the brake disc. For detecting the brake disc sand hole, you need not expose the workpiece and process. The X-ray inspection method is the most convenient and efficient technique. There are few defects like a sand hole, sand grain, sand block, and sand mass in the brake disc, which require casting workers to detect them. Just detecting these defects in the brake disc is not enough. It’s mandatory to evaluate these defects in terms of count, size, area, and so on, in order to improve as well as promote the product quality.
The development of a sand hole is the most common defect during the casting process. It is an endless task for the sand-casting workers to detect the sand hole in order to correct and prevent their formation.
Before knowing the application of X-ray inspection to detect sand hole, it is mandatory to understand the formation of a sand hole in the castings.
A sand hole typically refers to a hole formed by impurities or gas on the surface or internal part of the casting. The appearance of sand holes on the casting surface is easily visible. But the sand holes on the internal part cannot be seen easily. Only when these internal and surface casting sand holes are detected, they can be rectified by grinding, welding, or scraping. This is where X-ray based non-destructive testing equipment solves the purpose.
The X-ray based non-destructive testing equipment manufactured by Uni X-ray technology can effectively detect sand holes in castings. At first, this equipment can precisely detect the internal structure of the casting through the X-ray transmission principle. The defects like a sand hole, shrinkage cavity, and cracks can be easily viewed on the computer screen. Hence, it’s possible to improve the quality of the product by promptly finding out the abnormality in the casting production process.
Not only the inspection quality but also the mechanism of this equipment is too convenient. It is enough to keep the test piece on the machine tray. Within a few seconds, the entire result about the quality of the test piece can be viewed via the computer screen. This efficient and intuitive result can improve the casting production by finding the cause of the issue in every step, and rectifying it at the right time. Checking the cause of the issue includes analysis of the size, area, defects, etc. Hence, it is possible to improve the product quality and affordability by drastically lowering the negative effects to the minimum level.
Thus, X-ray based non-destructive testing equipment manufactured by Uni X-ray technology is extensively used in the assessment of automobile parts, pressure vessels, engineering parts, steel cylinder, aluminum iron castings, and other industries.
Test Picture: (Air Hole, air bubble)
The hood of an automobile engine is made up of magnesium alloy. In the 21st century, magnesium and its alloys are the most promising light structural materials. The major characteristics of magnesium and its alloys are:
Automobile Engine Hood
This magnesium alloy has been developed as many automobile parts such as steering wheel frame, transmission case, seat frame, wheel hub, instrument panel frame, etc. by engine factories and parts suppliers nationally and internationally. How should we ensure the quality of magnesium alloy parts then? This is where X-ray based nondestructive testing machines play a significant role.
X-ray based non-destructive testing equipment can be conveniently used to detect magnesium alloy parts, for any defects at a glance via real-time imaging. It can get connected with the production line of the factory, implement the complete automatic loading and unloading manipulator, decrease the manpower cost, understand the integration method of production, testing, and evaluation thereby improving the production efficiency. With maximum resolution, high definition qualitative imaging, automatic defect recognition, and the automatic evaluation function, this entire system can inspect the magnesium alloy parts automatically and thoroughly with 100% accuracy in real-time.
The below listed seven parts are required to build a basic automotive X-ray machine:
The major parameters of an automotive X-ray inspection machine include:
X-ray inspection systems for auto parts are divided into two categories. The inspection systems may be 2D or 3D, which may be operated either online or offline. Let us go through them in detail:
It shows the two-dimensional images from both sides of the auto parts at the same time, thereby delivering a clear picture of the board’s components. This mechanism is similar to the traditional medical X-ray, which was used to view the bone fractures. These 2D systems can be operated either online or offline.
It creates the three-dimensional image of a auto parts by forming a series of 2D cross-sections. This mechanism is similar to the CT scan used in the medical industry. This system also works using the laminography method, where it combines the cross-sections and eliminates the images from other sections to build up a specific area precisely. The CT method of the 3D system can only work offline due to its complex algorithms. But the laminography method can be used both online and offline.
Several X-ray devices are used online for data collection and comparison. Most of these devices are put after the reflow oven. Hence, it will be easier to process enormous quantities of complex auto parts, based on the additional cost and safety elements. However, the online operations will slow down the efficiency of the X-ray machine, thereby consuming more time and expenses. It is the slowest part of the assembly line, where the ability of the fabrication line becomes low.
All types of X-ray devices can be operated offline to achieve panel inspection and sampling inspection. This operation type is comparatively quick to run. It is possible to inspect auto parts conveniently at any stage in the assembly line. Hence, it is less cost-effective with higher productivity.
Selecting the perfect system for your operation must be done carefully. Opting for a 2D or 3D system with online or offline abilities usually depends on the measure of the target product inspected, the expected quality of the inspection, as well as the quantity of time required to complete the inspection process.
The X-ray inspection system with CT function is usually operated offline due to the requirement of more 2D images and complicated algorithms. Hence, this CT X-ray inspection system is used only in the less significant professional research areas. Other 2D and 3D systems were instructed with the best image at the least time in order to cut the cost of the inspection.
There are three types of X-ray tubes listed below:
The following are the parameters considered for the X-ray tube:
The detector is the major part of the auto parts X-ray inspection system. It converts invisible X-rays into visible light. Hence, it is possible to view the images easily through the naked eye. By sensing the intensity of the X-ray beam passing through the object, the detector produces varied black and white values (gray levels) on the image. That is why if the detector gets damaged, its replacement costs will be tremendous.
So, let us have a fair idea of how to select the right X-ray detector:
One should pay attention to the following specifications while selecting a fluorescent tube for the X-ray machine:
Opt for the open tube or closed tube type, which is correlated with the resolution and life expectancy of the inspection devices. The more the resolution, the more will be the view of intricate and delicate details. If you inspect the target at a large scale, then it’s not an issue to choose the device with a relatively low resolution.
The target type plays a vital role in influencing the distance between the sample and the X-ray tube focus. This type will eventually influence the magnifying level of inspection devices. Hence, the target type should be reflective or penetrating.
The penetrating ability of the X-ray tube is always proportional to the voltage. Hence when the voltage is large, it is easier to inspect the objects with higher density and thickness. If the inspected target is single-sided boards, select the devices with low voltage. Similarly, if the inspected target is multi-layer boards, select the high voltage. At a certain voltage level, the image definition is proportional to the X-ray tube power.
The maintenance tips are categorized day-wise, monthly, bi-annually, and annually. Let us go through each of them in detail:
1 Daily check items
1.1. Check whether the safety induction switch found at the back door of the X-ray machine is working properly.
Method: Close both front and back doors to see whether the contact indicator of the relay is ignited. If the contact indicator light on the relays KA2(front door) and KA3(back door) is on, the safety induction switch is effective. If the indicator light is not on, the safety induction switch is considered as unacceptable.
1.2. Check whether the X-ray machine rotation axis and four-axis movement are working properly.
Method: Once when the total power is turned on, click on the software, and shake the joystick on the comfort to see whether the motion of X-axis and Y-axis is normal. Click both up and down buttons of the X-ray tube and the image detector on the software interface to check if the two axes are moving properly.
1.3. Verify if the motion axis of the X-ray machine sensors is working appropriately.
Method: This test is done to control the movement of each axis to the position of the equivalent limit sensor. When the indicator light of the sensor is switched on, the movement will halt. Check whether the computer is booting properly.
2 Monthly check items
2.1. Inspection of the X-ray machine movement mechanism
2.2. Inspection of the emergency stop switch working condition
3 Biannual check items
3.1. X-ray machine power detection
Method: First, open the back door. Check whether 24VDC and 5VDC power supplies are working properly.
3.2. Equipment guide rail on the lubricating oil for its clean appearance
Method: First, turn off the device as well as disconnect the power supply. Open the back door, lubricate each screw rod with grease, and run it over and over to lubricate while cleaning the portions of the inner wall. In the end, open the side door and wipe it with a clean cloth.
4 Annual maintenance
4.1. Check for the signs of damage on the inner side and the outer side of the machine, if any.
4.2. Check the observation window glass to find if there is any scratch.
4.3. Check the rotation pattern of the X-ray light tube, platform movement axis, as well as the detector.
4.4. Check all the fans and clean the filter properly with cotton.
5 Check X-ray image quality
Description of the problem
Analysis of the problem
The computer has a starting problem
· Loose computer power connectors
· Presence of virus can cause a system failure
· Reinsert your computer’s power plug
· Reinstall the entire system
Automatic reboot after power-up
Presence of the virus in the computer
Perform system restoration
X/Y/Z axis motors are not running properly
· Issues with the power
supply to the drive
· Loose B joints
· Drive anomalies
· Replace the power supply
· Use fasteners
· Use replacement Drive
Jarring of the rail
during the movement
· Loose couplings
· Linear guide and roller screw without any lubrication for a longer duration due to dryness
· Check couplings and tighten them.
· Lubricate the linear guides and roller screws using grease
Inadequate power supply
Change the power supply
We have the right combination of the technical knowledge with qualified service expertise to provide proper maintenance service on our every X-ray system. If you have any query about our products or services, you can immediately contact us via online chat, phone, or email, so that our professional team will solve them at once.
Uni-Xray has a team of well-experienced engineers to provide timely services for every customer, including consulting services, custom design, equipment qualification, safety inspection service, and so on.
Uni X-ray offers an exceptional range of after-sales services, such as online video instructions and installation guides for our customers to ensure that their new or existing equipment is in safe and good operating mode, with a long life cycle. Additionally, we provide prompt safety inspection with regular maintenance service as per the personalized needs of our customers. These services are also available for X-ray machines delivered by other suppliers.
Once when you share the application details to our team, we will recommend the best X-ray inspection solution for you. At times, a customized solution will be the best, where we’ll work with you to suggest the right X-ray machine that will meet all your requirements. Hence, you can contact our sales and support team to discuss our services at any time as per your convenience.
Hope you have found this detailed blog post more informative that helps you to understand all the focus areas in detail before investing in industrial X-ray inspection equipment.
Does your equipment emit excessive radiation? What methods do you use to ensure radiation safety?
Safety Radiation: Chinese and international standards are both <1uSn / h. Radiation from our equipment is much smaller than this standard. We have an environmental exemption certificate.
Our radiation control methods are:
What is the warranty period for your equipment? After the warranty period, how do you guarantee?
The equipment warranties period is one year. During the warranty period, repairs and possible parts and component changes are free.
What does your warranty cover?
The warranty covers defects in machines. It does not cover damages issues caused by damage due to handling, shipment, storage, accident, impact, abuse, or misuse.
We have bought your equipment. How can we get started? What kind of training do you offer?
We offer three training methods:
What is the image quality of your device? How do you ensure high-quality images?
The customer provides samples and takes pictures for a report. Images taken are subject to customer approval.
The operating software is in Chinese and English (switchable) with a human-computer interaction screen, easy to use.
What is the delivery time for your equipment?
For overseas customers, do you recommend shipping by sea or air?
This can be done according to the needs of customers. Shipping costs are cheap and long, while air freights are expensive but take a shorter time.
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