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What is Total Magnification?

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Do you ever feel confused when X-ray professionals mention total magnification? 

While image magnification is an essential part of the analysis in X-ray imaging systems, total magnification explores the limits of image magnification. Different lenses and microscopes are often utilized to carry out total magnification for other purposes beyond X-ray imaging. On the other hand, X-ray inspection utilizes X-ray lenses or microscopes, which rely on X-ray beams to achieve magnification instead of visible light for other forms of object magnification.

This guide explores the intricacies of total magnification and helps you understand its concept and calculations. So, if you’d love to know more about total magnification, then let’s dive in together.


I. What is the Total Magnification of an Image?

Magnification involves the enlargement of an object many times bigger than its original size. However, total magnification deals with the enlargement of an object to achieve the biggest possible size it can be. The usual way to achieve total magnification is often with objective and ocular lenses. While ocular lenses can magnify objects up to 10 times their original size, objective lenses, on the other hand, have a variety of enlargement capacities, including 4, 10, 40, and even 100 times the original object size. The specific enlargement capacity of objective lenses depends on the type used. 


What is Total Magnification


II. What is the Formula of Magnification?

To calculate the magnification of an image, a knowledge of the X-ray source distance to the detector and object distance to the X-ray source is critical. Magnification is a function of the image size and the object size. The ratio of image size to the object size determines the object’s level of enlargement or magnification. The formula for magnification is given as the division of SID/SOD, where SID is the X-ray source-image distance, and SOD is the X-ray source-object distance. 


III. Does Total Magnification Work?

Total magnification is a critical parameter needed to set optimum values for other parameters like special resolution needed to achieve a high-quality image in the inspection process. Also, it enables the operator to know the limit of magnification achievable for a certain inspection lens so that the limit is put into consideration before commencing the inspection. 

While the magnification is dependent on the image distance to the X-ray source and objects distance to the source, total magnification basically depends on the type of objective lens, and knowing the total magnification required for a procedure enables the operator to choose the suitable objective lens to achieve the desired total magnification.


IV. What is the Difference between Magnification and Total Magnification?

Magnification is simply increasing the size of an image relative to the object using a given magnification factor. On the other hand, total magnification does not use any magnification factor in the enlargement of an image relative to the object. Rather, it enlarges the image to the maximum where it becomes impossible to further enlarge the image. For instance, an image with a magnification factor of 10 means that the image has been enlarged up to 10 times the original object. Conversely, if the total image magnification is 40 times, it means the image cannot be enlarged beyond 40 times its original size. 


V. How to Calculate Total Magnification?

In order to calculate the total magnification of an object, the two critical requirements are ocular magnification and objective lens magnification. The product of the ocular lens magnification and the objective lens magnification will give you the total magnification of the object. In other words, OCC X OBJ = TM where Occ is the ocular lens magnification, OBJ is the objective lens magnification, and TM is the total magnification.

For instance, to get the total magnification of an X-ray microscope with an ocular lens magnification of 10 times and an objective lens magnification of 40 times, the total magnification will be 10 multiplied by 40, which is 400 times. This means the limit of enlargement of the image using this X-ray microscope is 400 times the original object size. 

Likewise, if an X-ray microscope has an ocular lens magnification of 10times and an objective lens magnification of 10 times, also the total magnification will be the product of both lenses, which is 10 multiplied by 10, which is 100 times. 

Hence, the total magnification, in this case, is 100 times the original size of the object. This calculation is especially useful for operators to accurately ascertain the total magnification of a viewing instrument before the commencement of the inspection. It also allows the operator to set other complementary parameters to achieve a high-quality image that helps to get an accurate result



In conclusion, knowing the difference between magnification and total magnification has a lot of benefits, including knowing the adjustment parameters for lenses to get the best image quality possible during X-ray inspection. It also helps to achieve accurate inspection results as the image generated helps in the analysis of a test sample to identify anomalies and defects. Nonetheless, it is important to know how to calculate both the magnification of an image and its total magnification since both are the center of achieving a high-quality image. 

So now that you have this information, the ball is in your courts. What is your next move? 

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