1. What are the characteristics of the X-ray?
- An industrial X-ray testing is a type of non-destructive test which scans the internal structure of a target object. These rays will then highlight the flaws through the radiological images that go undetected by the naked eye.
- This industrial X-ray machine can precisely determine the internal defects such as cracks, porosity, misalignments, missing components, etc. in a test object.
- At the same time, this X-ray test does not modify the properties of the test object while taking the radiological image.
- It’s a quick, accurate, and reliable test that can successfully improve the overall manufacturing experience in terms of quality control. However, you require the help of certified inspectors for interpreting the results.
- By performing this test, X-ray machine manufacturers can ensure that their industrial products are in good condition before selling them.
- X-ray testing can make the production more efficient, minimize cost as well as waste.
- Industrial radiography (X-ray test) is used to inspect industrial products such as printed circuit board (PCB), boilers, metal welds, oil and gas pipelines, aircraft parts, vehicle parts, etc.
Industrial X-rays testing instrument is composed of three elements such as:
- X-ray tube to emit X-rays
- A sample operation platform to place the sample so that it can be inspected from various angles
- Digital X-ray detector to capture the outcoming X-rays from the sample and convert them into an image.
X-ray radiography machine works by electricity. When this instrument is switched off, X-rays are not produced. As these devices are large, precise, and produce clear pictures, it is good to use them in factories.
2. The Importance of X-ray Inspection
2.1 X-ray in Ceramic Knives Inspection
Ceramic knives are otherwise called as ‘noble knives’, as it is a product of modern high technology with the unique advantages of traditional metal knives. As they are elegant, precious, and composed of hi-tech nano zirconium oxide, they are also called ‘zirconium gem knives.’ The combination of zirconia and alumina powder is pressed with 300 tons of pressure into a blank, sintered at 2000 degrees Celsius, and then polished with a diamond to make a ceramic knife with great finishing. The ceramic blade is a new type of blade made of hi-tech nano-technology with precision ceramic under high pressure, which is ten times sharper than the steel blade. Hence, it has the characteristics of high density, high hardness, high-temperature resistance, anti-oxidation, anti-magnetization, etc.
Despite all these good characteristics, there is a downside too. If the right combination of the zirconia is not used with alumina powder, the texture of ceramic knife can become too fragile. Similarly, the occurrence of discontinuities such as voids and inclusions during the infiltration process can affect the quality of ceramic knives. For instance, voids can reduce the stiffness of the overall composition followed by decreasing the thermal conductivity and bring the composition under stress that leads to crack formation. In order to ensure its proper quality, X-ray device is used to determine volumetric information, such as dimensions, density variations, inclusions, voids within the ceramic knife by taking the picture of its internal and external structures from various angles.
2.2 X-ray in PCB Inspection
In recent times, area array packages or devices such as BGAs, CSPs, QFNs, and flip chips are extensively used in all sectors like industrial, aerospace, military industry, communication, etc., where solder joints will get hidden under the package. Hence it is impossible to inspect PCB devices precisely. Furthermore, the occurrence of surface mount technology (SMT) helps in making both leads and packages become smaller. These PCBs have more density with their hidden solder joints and buried holes. The attributes such as increased density, size reduction, and intense complexity of PCBs have made it nearly impossible for traditional inspection methods to detect intricate defects thoroughly. This is where a PCB X-ray machine can take detailed images of the densely packed PCBs, check the solder joints under components, and detect the defects like cracks, pores, voids, bursts, etc.
Other applications of PCB X-ray machine include:
- Electrical and electronic components for broken wedge bonds die attach, lifted ball bonds, and wire sweep
- Check populated and unpopulated PCBs, CSPs, and BGAs (ball grid arrays)
- A detailed study of vias through multi-layer alignment and hole plating
- Measures chip size, marking, tin component area ratio, and wire arc
- Integrity testing of solder balls in cladding chip packages as well as solder array packages.
2.3 X-ray in Lithium Battery Inspection
A qualitative lithium battery with top-notch performance is widely used in consumer electronics, household appliances, electric vehicles, military, aviation, and other fields. As lithium batteries emit more heat, they are covered by a stainless-steel sheet with appropriate thickness to prevent any leak or harm. The more the utility of lithium batteries, the more will be the chances of failure. Even a tiny imperfection can become life-threatening. Hence, it is advised to follow stringent quality control standards to ensure safety. A high-resolution inspection is recommended to verify the quality of any complete battery cells.
After completing the lithium battery package, an X-ray test checks whether the welding inside the battery is proper or not. If the rolls are aligned properly, the winding won’t undergo a short-circuit followed by an explosion.
Other applications of X-rays in lithium batteries include:
- Checking the stainless-steel weld which was used to encase the battery.
- Measurement of any missing material, foreign material inclusions, and overhangs
- Determination of any nick as well as check its length, twist, and fitting.
- Identifying any sign of voids, holes, or misalignment in the stacked parts.
- Detecting insulation layer, faulty assemblies, fuses, welds, broken cables, etc.
- Measurement of the internal structure, linear distances, and alignments precisely
- Checking if the lithium battery is fully functional
2.4 X-ray in Car Tires Inspection
The wheel is a significant part of a car, like how the leg is to the person. Hence, the quality of the wheel plays a vital role. A proper wheel of high quality should follow a severe production process along with the prompt and strict quality inspection. If the wheel is not up to the mark in terms of quality, it may lead to traffic safety accidents.
This is where X-ray inspection test can be incorporated directly into the manufacturing process to inspect the interior portion of every car tire. It can detect the pores, cracks, slagging as well as looseness within these automotive precisely. It can also detect the anomalies such as spacing, position, and damage in steel wires. The quality of the tire or other parts is evaluated as per the size, location, and nature of the observed defects.
Other issues that can be detected by X-ray inspection test include:
- Defects or missing wires in the belt plies
- Foreign objects
- Air inclusions
- Shifts and distortions in the reinforcement plies
2.5 X-ray in Fuse Inspection
- X-ray test can measure the internal structure and linear distances precisely
- Detect fuses, faulty assemblies, insulation layer, broken cables, etc.
- Check the possibility of short circuits, open circuits, defects, or improper connections in connection circuits of varied types.
- Inspect the defects such as layer peel, bursts, misalignment (twist and fitting) in the stacked wire, holes, voids, and integrity testing of wire.
- X-ray test at every stage can predict the chance of any short circuit
- Analysis of the failed fuses
3. How to choose a good X-ray machine?
In a nutshell, a good industrial X-ray machine can effectively check the quality of the manufactured products in the industrial sector in order to prevent any accident. So, it is high time to buy an efficient and qualitative X-ray machine. This is where, a reliable, knowledgeable, and trustworthy X-ray manufacturer helps to select the most appropriate industrial X-ray machine for the practice. Keeping that in mind, one should consider the below listed four factors while selecting a good X-ray machine.
3.1 Image Quality
Selecting the industrial X-ray machine of the best quality seems to be very complicated which involves a lot of physics with clever software. The factors that can affect image quality in an X-ray machine are listed below:
- Type of X-ray tube
- Spot size
- Detector resolution
- Field of view proximity of the X-ray source to the target object
- Degree of automation
- Use of generators
- Requirement of a flat panel detector
It is advised to pick the typical sample assemblies and create the X-ray system. There are systems targeted at assemblies to deliver good to excellent image quality. Finally, the determination of the image quality is too subjective. It is connected with an inspection set up rather than the technical ability of its components. Moreover, the buyer should be clear with the requirements before selecting the model.
To ensure the stability of the X-ray devices, it is compulsory to opt for the latest technology features. The buyer should be clear with the requirements so that the right manufacturer can help in selecting stable technology. The checklist includes software, ease of use, image quality, user interface, modules, and so on. Take a demonstration before going for the purchase, so that the buyer can directly clarify the stability of the instrument before making the final decision. Similarly, the stability of the instrument can be ensured by performing monthly or yearly quality checks by the supplier after buying the device. Ultimately, it’s the right support team that can ensure regular servicing to reduce the downtime in addition to the updation of any new obligations or protocols.
There are varied types of X-ray tubes. ‘Open tube’ types are comparatively inexpensive, quick, and easy to replace. Perhaps, these tubes should be replaced every 200-300 hours or so of use. ‘Closed tube’ types last for many years. However, they are comparatively more expensive, where you will spend thousands of pounds. Hence the selection of the best one depends on the utility value. Similarly, it is better to replace the X-ray detectors with standard or High Definition flat panels every 8 to 12 years when the machine is in use since the X-ray flow may degrade the detectors over time, say approximately 20 percent after ten years.
The price is the major concern for all industrial administrators before proceeding with the purchase. It is recommended to choose the device manufacturer who makes the most of the available funds. The closing quote should validate the value of the device. The price can be influenced by various factors such as model type, features, manual/digital, installation set up, delivery, warranty, regular (monthly or yearly) maintenance service, training (online/offline) support, etc. Also, ensure that the manufacturer covers the accidental damage. At the same time, don’t forget to negotiate. While buying any device, it is mandatory to request a cost slash.
3.4 Why choose us?
By understanding the significance and attributes of a proper industrial X-ray machine in the industrial sector, the buyer can choose the best and latest instrument that can reduce add-on expenses and save money.
Uni X-ray produces specialized industrial X-ray machines that offer excellent and ultra-sharp image qualities to meet your requirements at an affordable cost. This is so because our machines use high-quality X-ray tubes and images enhanced tubes or digital flat panels. Also, they are equipped with professional image software, which makes the image very sharp by capturing the intricate details. Our industrial X-ray machines earned ISO9001 quality system certification, the OHSAS18001 occupational health and safety system certification, the ISO27001 information security system certification with ensured licensing from US FDA, the ISO14001 environmental system certification, Ministry of Public Security, Radiation Safety, and the EU CE. With more than 15 years of experience in industrial X-ray machine manufacturing and R & D, our hi-tech Uni X-ray Technology company proudly declares that we are the owner of the world’s most advanced core micro-focus X-ray technology.