NDT Radiographic Testing
Nondestructive radiographic testing is carried out in various industrial sectors such as power generation, aerospace, petroleum, automotive, construction, and chemicals. It is used to determine surface, sub-surface, and internal flaws on all types of components like castings, welds, and composites as well. This technique can help in corrosion mapping. This versatile testing can be conducted in labs or on the manufacturing sites. Dimensions of the target object are not a major issue. This NDT can be conducted on components of varied measurements.
Here come UNI X-Ray’s accredited labs equipped with qualitative exposure bays. These exposure bays can help our clients with the radiographic assessment on a 24-hour basis.
Furthermore, we provide radiographic film digitization that converts a physical film image to a digital image. It can be enlarged or manipulated. Hence, NDT is highly convenient for archiving followed by storage.
We can very well understand the issues you come across while satisfying the manufacturing demands of your customers. To reduce delay, we deliver a quick response by carrying out 24/7 radiographic testing at our labs. We also perform the collection and distribution of components and assemblies from various clients in and around the local area.
In a nutshell, when UNI X-Ray performs on-site radiography, you’ll have 100% assurance as we adhere to all legal requirements and legislative notifications. These requirements include isotope transportation, protective enclosure barriers, as well as warning systems.
- Can examine assembled parts
- Just a minimum surface preparation is enough
- Inspects both surfaces as well as subsurface defects
- Delivers a lasting record of the inspection outcomes
- Confirm internal flaws on complicated component structures
- Isolate and assess interior components
- Automatically determine internal flaws and measure them
- Measure proportions as well as angles within the test object without sectioning
- Sensitive to variations in flaws, thickness, material density, as well as corrosion
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About NDT Radiographic Testing You Should Know
- What is NDT radiographic testing?
Radiographic Testing (RT) comes under the non-destructive testing (NDT) method. It inspects the interior structure of manufactured parts and identifies for flaws or defects if any. NDT radiographic test uses either X-rays or gamma rays.
In Radiography Testing, the sample is kept between the source from which radiation arises and film (or detector). The variation in thickness and density of the sample alter the penetration of the radiation while passing through it. This step involves the scattering and/or absorption principle. These variations in absorption level deliver the final image which gets stored on film or detector.
There are five imaging techniques that come under industrial radiography:
- Film Radiography
- Computed Tomography (CT)
- Real Time Radiography (RTR)
- Digital Radiography (DR)
- Computed Radiography (CR)
- How does NDT radiographic testing work?
In NDT Radiographic Testing (RT), either X-ray or gamma rays are used as a source to deliver the final image. An X-ray tube emits X-rays. Similarly, a radioactive isotope emits gamma rays. This radiation source passes its respective rays through the test sample. And, a film is kept behind the sample i.e., on the remote side as it is sensitive to this radiation. That’s how the rays transmit from one side of the sample to the remote portion where the film is kept. When the rays pass through the sample, it absorbs part of the radiation. The region with an increased thickness or density absorbs more radiation, which forms an image on the film or detector. The film assesses these rays and measures them over its entire surface.
Later, this film is developed with the help of chemicals like photographic film under darkroom conditions. The variations in radiation are displayed in diverse degrees of black and white according to the absorption level. This differential absorption is referred to as film density that can be viewed on a special light-emitting device. It’s actually the defects or discontinuities in the test sample that affect the quantity of radiation and employ differential absorption. Hence, the final outcome will be interpreted by a well experienced qualified inspector. These inspectors will record the type of flaw and its location in the test sample.
That’s how radiographic test helps in delivering a lasting record by displaying in the form of a radiograph. In that case, it is possible to study the interior structure of the sample through this highly sensitive image. Moreover, this method is similar to medical radiography.
- What are the applications of NDT radiographic testing?
Nondestructive based Industrial Radiographic Testing (RT) showcases the hidden defects of the sample material using X-rays or gamma radiation. This technology can establish the quality of welds, machined parts, piping, castings, pressure vessels, as well as other manufactured components. Since this method is completely non-destructive, there is no need for surface preparation of the testing sample. Moreover, RT-based NDT can inspect active industrial connections and operations.
Industrial radiography can also inspect welds, casting parts, composites, food, luggage, turbine, drugs, aircraft, and ballistics.
Other applications of RT-based NDT include:
- Inspect sorting and recycling, EOD and IED analysis, and surface characterization
- Measure the thickness of the coating
- Spot discontinuities like porosities, cracks, and voids.
- Track intricate changes during the surface finishing
In general, industrial radiography determines structural variations, material thickness, as well as changes in tracking.
X-ray testing can be employed on test materials with the utmost thickness of 50 millimeters. Similarly, gamma-ray testing can inspect materials where the thickness ranges from 10 to 120 millimeters.
- How does an object behave under NDT radiographic testing?
The quantity of radiation absorbed by the test object totally depends on its density as well as thickness. The region of the test object where the radiation does not gets absorbed will expose more energy to the radiographic film. Hence, the film will look darker while developing. Similarly, the areas of the film that got exposed to less energy will subsequently look lighter. These variations in absorption occur due to the presence of discontinuities in the test object. That’s why discontinuities like cracks or porosity will get displayed as dark outlines while developing the film. Low-density inclusions like slag will be displayed as dark areas. Similarly, high-density inclusions like tungsten will be shown as light areas.
As already mentioned, these discontinuities can be assessed by checking the shape of the sample and detecting the dissimilarities in its density. Only a qualified and well-experienced inspector should perform radiography tests and interpret the results of the sample quality. Only the skilled inspector can successfully avoid false readings, as they prove to be costly and affects productivity. Moreover, both X-rays and gamma rays are invisible and hazardous. Hence, an experienced inspector can properly handle these radiation sources.
- Is NDT radiographic testing dangerous?
As we all are aware, both X-rays and gamma rays are hazardous for everyone. Hence, our radiographic testing is conducted properly in a strongly built concrete bunker. While going to perform radiographic testing on our location, we create a safe perimeter around the examination zone. Others are prohibited from entering that perimeter during the inspection time. That’s why this NDT radiographic test is performed not during the working hours. Moreover, after completing the inspection, the tested objects won’t be radioactive. Hence, they can be handled safely.
UNI X-Ray is completely certified to carefully store, transport, and use both the X-ray tubes for industrial radiography testing.